LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION
The numbers in the following list refer to works in the catalogue.
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Agyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung 49, 80, 87, 93, 133, 135, 159, 166, 168, 169, 178c, 198, 213, 214
Brussels, Musees Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire 69, 150a, 177b
Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum 2, 39, 106, 151, 156
Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek 24ab, 59, 189
Cairo, Egyptian Museum 3, 5, 17, i9a-c, 22ab, 31, 56, 68, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 100, 102, 132, 134, 144, 150b, 185, 186
Paris, Musee du Louvre, Departement des Antiquites Egyptiennes 9, n, 12, 13, 14, 18, 51, 54, 55, 78, 117, 122, 123, 124, 157, i77d, 179, 180, 181, 183, 187, 191,192
Berlin, Agyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin 28, 29a-k, 111,112,113, 115ab, 118, 119, 120, 146a, 152
Heidelberg, Sammlung des Agyptologischen Instituts der Universitat Heidelberg 114 Hildesheim, Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum 44
Leipzig, Agyptisches Museum, Universitat Leipzig 61, 62, 64, 77, 83, 142, 143, 162, 163, 164, 212
Munich, Staatliche Sammlung Agyptischer Kunst 6, 24c, 34, 50, 121
Cambridge, The Syndics of the Fitzwilliam Museum 98, 177c, 200, 201
Edinburgh, Trustees of the National Museums of Scotland 171
London, The Trustees of the British Museum 8, 2oa-c, 35, 36, 37, 82, 95, 96, 97, 165, 188,190, 204
London, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London 101, 116, 150cd, 176, 177a, 205, 206
Manchester, The Manchester Museum, University of Manchester 25c
Oxford, The Visitors of the Ashmolean Museum 207, 208, 21oab, 211
Turin, Soprintendenza al Museo delle Antichita Egizie 7a-c, 16, 158, 199
Leiden, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden 15, 149
Lausanne, Fondation Jacques-Edouard Berger 202, 203
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Berkeley, Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley 46, 52, 53, 99,
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 25ab, 32, 33, 45, 47, 48, 57, 58, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 94, 167, 195, 196, 197
Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum of Art 10, 21, 126, 127, 145, 146b, 170, 172
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Semitic Museum 30
Chicago, The Oriental Institute of The University of Chicago 4, 137, 138ab, 139, 140 Cleveland, The Cleveland Museum of Art 128 Detroit, The Detroit Institute of Arts 193, 194 Kansas City, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art 153, 154
New York, Nanette B. Kelekian 63
New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art I, 23, 27, 38, 41, 42, 43, 60, 65, 66, 81, 84, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 125, 129, 130, 141, 147, 148, 155, 160, 161, 173, 174, 175, 178ab, 182, 184
Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology 40
Princeton, The Art Museum, Princeton University 107
Worcester, Massachusetts, Worcester Art Museum 131
Ancient Egypt continues to exert a real fascination for the public, as attested by the unfailing success of the major exhibitions devoted to the subject. Remarkably, however, these exhibitions have usually featured a specific theme or a particular pharaoh—Amenhotep III, Tutankhamun, Ramesses II— and have often given precedence to the New Kingdom. Thus we sometimes fail to remember that pharaonic history extends over several millennia and that the pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx were created more than a thousand years before the well-known achievements of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
One of the notable qualities of the exhibition «Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids,» the first to be devoted entirely to the approximately five centuries of the Old Kingdom, is that it restores our temporal perspective. In doing so, it demonstrates the extraordinary flowering of the arts at the time the pyramids were built, when not only architecture but also sculpture, painting, and the decorative arts were at their peak. The exhibition also allows us to reunite works of the same provenance that have been dispersed throughout the world by the vicissitudes of acquisition. In addition to offering enormous aesthetic pleasure, the reassembling of these works has great art-historical value: for a brief period of time, it gives us the opportunity to evaluate, on the basis of the objects themselves, the attribution of certain dates and the pertinence of certain hypotheses.
We would like to express our warm gratitude to all those who conceived and organized the exhibition, especially the curators of Egyptian art at our own museums: Christiane Ziegler in Paris; Dorothea Arnold in New York; and Krzysztof Grzymski in Toronto. We also wish to thank all the lenders in charge of public and private collections who made the exhibition possible and, in particular, the Egyptian authorities who generously agreed to lend the masterpieces without which our presentation of this first golden age of Egyptian art would have been much the poorer.
The Metropolitan Museum is extremely grateful to Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman for their outstanding generosity toward the exhibition and their ongoing friendship and dedication to the Museum’s endeavors. We also wish to express special thanks to The Starr Foundation for its important financial commitment to all aspects of the project. The support provided by the Malcolm Hewitt Wiener Foundation is noteworthy as well, since it has helped to make our splendid educational programs a reality. Junko Koshino has also kindly furnished support for the project, and we extend our sincere thanks for her gesture. In addition, we are thankful for the assistance given by the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. The realization of the accompanying publication was made possible with the assistance of The Adelaide Milton de Groot Fund, in memory of the de Groot and Hawley families.
Directeur, Musees de France
President, Reunion des Musées Nationaux
Philippe de Montebello
Director, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Director and President, Royal Ontario Museum
All exhibitions are collaborations, and none more so than a large enterprise such as this one, which inevitably involves a great number of people. The authors and organizers of this exhibition and catalogue extend their heartfelt gratitude to all the museum directors and administrators, department heads, curators, conservators, and registrars who have lent objects from their collections, facilitated the photography of these pieces, and answered numerous queries. Thanks are also offered to the support staffs of all these institutions, which provided essential assistance in innumerable ways.
The first of our specific thanks go to the directors of our three institutions, without whom this enterprise could not have been realized: Françoise Cachin, Directeur des Musées de France, President de la Reunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris; Philippe de Montebello, Director of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; and Lindsay Sharp, Director and President of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. Of special importance to this endeavor was Mahrukh Tarapor, Associate Director for Exhibitions at The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Loans from Egypt could not have been secured without the generous support of His Excellency Farouk Hosny, Minister of Culture of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and Professor Gaballa Ali Gaballa, Secretary General, Supreme Council of Antiquities in Egypt. Zahi Hawass, Director of the Monuments of Giza and Saqqara, provided resolute support to the project from its inception, in addition to contributing to the catalogue. Mohamed Saleh, former Director of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, played a crucial role in selecting the pieces from that museum. Heartfelt thanks are also due to Mohamed Ghoneim, First Undersecretary, Ministry of Culture; His Excellency Aly Maher el-Sayed, Egyptian Ambassador to France; His Excellency Ahmed Maher el-Sayed, Egyptian Ambassador to the United States; Ahmed Nawar, Director General of Egyptian Museums; Mohamed Abdel Hamid Shimy, Director of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo; Ibrahim Abdel Galel Ibrahim, Director of Exhibitions at the Egyptian Museum; Mahmoud el Helwagy, Curator of Old Kingdom Art at the Egyptian Museum; Amal Samuel, Chief Inspector of the Giza Pyramids; Mohammed Hagrass, Director of Antiquities for Saqqara; and Magdy el Ghan-dour, Chief Inspector of South Saqqara and Dahshur. Our appreciation is extended to the members of the Permanent Committee of the Supreme Council of Antiquities. Gratitude is also due to the staff of the Egyptian Museum and the antiquities inspectors of Giza and Saqqara. Assistance was furnished as well by Mark Easton and Amira Khattab of the American Research Center in Egypt, Cairo; the Honorable Daniel C. Kurtzer, United States Ambassador to Egypt; and the staff of the Cultural Affairs Office, United States Embassy, Cairo. Among those in New York, we extend our special thanks to His Excellency Ahmed Aboul-Gheit, Egyptian Ambassador to the United Nations.
Among our French partners at the Reunion des Musees Nationaux we would like to acknowledge: Irene Bizot, Administrateur General; Ute Collinet, Secretaire General; Benedicte Boissonnas, Chef du Departement des Expositions; Vincent David, Coordinateur d’Expositions; Francine Robinson, Coordinateur d’Expositions; Anne de Margerie, Chef du Departement du Livre et de l’lmage; and Bernadette Caille, Editeur. Our gratitude particularly goes to our colleagues at the Musee du Louvre: Pierre Rosenberg, President-Directeur, and in the Departement des Antiquites Egyptiennes: Laurence Berlandier, Dominique Brancart, Catherine Bridonneau, Laurence Cotelle-Michel, Elisabeth David, Isabelle Franco, Sylvie Guichard, Sophie Labbe-Toutee, Nadine Palayret, Patricia Rigault, and Marie-Françoise de Rozieres. Also most helpful were Jean-Marc Rochereau de La Sabliere, French Ambassador to Egypt; Fabyene Mansencal, French Cultural Attache to Canada; and Pierre-Jean Van-doorne, French Consul General to Canada.
Warmest appreciation is extended to our colleagues at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto—Harriet Walker, N. B. Millet, Roberta Shaw, Julie Anderson, Nur Bahal, Tricia Walker, Bill Pratt, Margo Welch, Lory Drusian, Laura Matthews, and Meg Beckel—and to the ROM Foundation.
Fleartfelt gratitude is expressed to our colleagues at the following European institutions: Agyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Dietrich Wildung, Karl-Heinz Priese, Hannelore Kischke-witz, Anja Bernhardt, Dunja Riitt; Musees Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels: Francis Van Noten, Luc Limme, Viviane Xhignesse; Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge: Duncan Robinson, Eleni Vassilika, Penny Wilson, Thyrza Smith, Liz Woods; Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen: Flemming Johansen, Mogens Jorgensen; National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh: Mark Jones, Rosalyn Clancey, Lesley-Ann Liddiard, Lyn Stevens; Sammlung des Agyp-tologischen Instituts der Universitat Heidelberg: Erika Feucht; Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim: Arne Eggebrecht, Annamaria Geiger, Konrad Deufel, Gabriele Pieke, Bettina Schmitz; Fondation Jacques-Edouard Berger, Lausanne: Rene Berger; Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden: Maarten J. Raven; Agyptisches Museum, Universitat Leipzig: Elke Blumenthal, Renate Krauspe, Frank Steinmann; British Museum, London: Robert Anderson, W. Vivian Davies, Morris L. Bierbrier, Jeffrey Spencer, Claire Messenger, H. J. Morgan; Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London: Barbara Adams, Sally MacDonald, Stephen Quirke; The Manchester Museum, University of Manchester: Tristram Besterman, Rosalie David; Staatliche Sammlung Agyptischer Kunst, Munich: Sylvia Schoske, Alfred Grimm; Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford: Christopher Brown, P. R. S. Moorey, Helen Whitehouse, Mark Norman; Museo delle Antichita Egizie, Turin: Anna Maria Donadoni Roveri, Enrichetta Leospo, Elisabetta Valtz; and Kunsthistorishes Museum: Wilfried Seipel, Helmut Satzinger.
Thanks are also extended to Wolf-Dieter Dube, Generaldirektor, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin; Mario Serio, Direttore Generale per i Beni Culturali, Rome; Giuseppe Perrone, Cultural Affairs Officer, Italian Embassy, Washington, D.C.; and Madame Arigotti, Cultural Affairs Section, Italian Embassy, Paris.
Our sincerest thanks are offered to our colleagues at these museums in the United States: Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley: Rosemary A. Joyce, Joan Knudsen, Madeleine Fang, Cathleen Keller; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: Malcolm Rogers, Rita E. Freed, Peter Der Manuelian, Kim Pashko, Nancy S. Allen; Brooklyn Museum of Art: Arnold L. Lehman, Richard Fazzini, James Romano, Ken Moser, Christina Dufresne; Harvard University Semitic Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Greene; The Field Museum, Chicago: Janice B. Klein; The Oriental Institute of The University of Chicago: Karen L. Wilson, Emily Teeter, Raymond D. Tindel; The Cleveland Museum of Art: the late Robert P. Bergman, Lawrence Berman, Mary E. Suzor; The Detroit Institute of Arts: Maurice D. Parrish, William H. Peck, Michelle S. Peplin; The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City: Marc. F. Wilson, Robert Cohon, Cindy Cart; The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia: Jeremy Sabloff, David Silverman, Jennifer Houser Wegner, Sylvia S. Duggan, Charles S. Kline; The Art Museum, Princeton University: Peter Bunnel, Michael Padgett, Maureen McCormick; Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts: James A. Welu, Lawrence Becker, Christine Kodoleon, Nancy L. Swallow; and special thanks to Nanette B. Kelekian, New York. Assistance was also provided by Katharine C. Lee and Richard Woodward, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, and David Restad, Phoenix Art Museum.
Most of the excellent photographs of the objects were taken by Bruce White, who must be considered a full partner in the project. Many of the photographs of Egyptian sites are the work of the late Artur Brack. Additional photographs were taken by Anna-Marie Kellen and Oi-Cheong Lee of the Photograph Studio of the Metropolitan Museum; John Woolf of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Jiirgen Liepe; John Ross; Peter Der Manuelian; Dieter Johannes; and Adela Oppenheim. Photographs were supplied by Zahi Hawass; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden; and the Soprintendenza al Museo delle Antichita Egizie, Turin. The drawings and plans are by Liza Majerus, Peter Der Manuelian, Dieter Arnold, Thomas Scalise, and JoAnn Wood. The computer reconstruction of the sun temple of Niuserre at Abu Ghurab is by David S. Johnson of The Museum of Reconstructions, Inc.
Last but certainly not least we acknowledge our colleagues at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. In the Director’s Office our appreciation goes to Doralynn Pines, Martha Deese, and Sian Wetherill.
In the Editorial Department John P. O’Neill provided invaluable assistance with the catalogue. Carol Fuerstein expertly edited the book and coordinated the work of the many authors with patience, grace, and good humor. Ellyn Childs Allison, Margaret Donovan, and Kathleen Howard ably assisted with the editing. Indispensable were Gwen Roginsky, who oversaw production, and Hsiao-ning Tu, who carried out the myriad tasks of production. Jean Wagner served as the editor of the bibliography. Patrick Seymour designed the volume after an original concept by Bruce Campbell. Robert Weisberg served as computer specialist. The essays were translated by James P. Allen and John McDonald with Catharine H. Roehrig, all of the Department of Egyptian Art; the entries were translated by Catharine H. Roehrig and Jane Marie Todd.
Our great thanks go to Richard R. Morsches and Linda M. Sylling of the Operations Department; Emily K. Rafferty of the Development Office; James H. Frantz, Ann Heywood, Deborah Schorsch, Jean-Frangois de Laperouse, Jeffrey W. Perhacs, Nancy S. Reynolds, Frederick J. Sager, and Alexandra Walcott in the Objects Conservation Department; Herbert Moskowitz of the Registrar’s Office; Franz J. Schmidt, William Brautigam and the riggers, and the staff of the workshops in the Buildings Department; Jeffrey L. Daly, Michael C. Batista, Jill Hammarberg, and Zack Zanolli of the Design Department; Marceline McKee and Suzanne L. Shenton of the Loans Office; Sharon H. Cott and Stephanie Oratz Basta of the Secretary and General Counsel’s Office; and Ronald E. Street and Wayne Moseley of the Three-Dimensional Reproductions Department.
The entire Department of Egyptian Art—James P. Allen, Susan Allen, Dieter Arnold, Sherine Badawi, William Barrette, Miriam Blieka, Laurel Flentye, Donald Fortenberry, Marsha Hill, Dennis Kelly, John McDonald, Adela Oppenheim, Diana Craig Patch, Elena Pischikova, Catharine H. Roehrig, Isidoro Salerno, and Thomas Scalise—contributed to the exhibition and the catalogue. Their many months of thoughtful scholarship, utmost attention to detail, and just plain hard work are deeply appreciated.
Dorothea Arnold, Lila Acheson Wallace Curator in Charge, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Krzysztof Grzymski, Senior Curator, Egyptian Section, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
Christiane Ziegler, Conservateur General Charge du Departement des Antiquites Egyptiennes, Musee du Louvre, Paris.
CONTRIBUTORS TO THE CATALOGUE AND KEY TO THE AUTHORS OF THE ENTRIES
JPA James P. Allen, Curator, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
SA Susan Allen, Research Associate, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
JA Julie Anderson, Research Associate, Egyptian Section, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
DA Dieter Arnold, Curator, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
DoA Dorothea Arnold, Lila Acheson Wallace Curator in Charge, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Nadine Cherpion, Professor, University of Louvain
Elisabeth David, Docteur en Égyptologie, Attachée au Département des Antiquités Égyptiennes, Musée du Louvre, Paris
Audran Labrousse, Directeur de Recherche au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; Directeur de la Mission Archéologique Français de Saqqara
Jean-Philippe Lauer, Directeur de Recherche Honoraire au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Jean Leclant, Secretaire Perpétuel de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris
PDM Peter Der Manuelian, Research Fellow, Department of Ancient Egyptian, Nubian and Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
NBM N. B. Millet, Senior Curator, Egyptian Section, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
AO Adela Oppenheim, Research Associate, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Nicolas Grimai, Directeur de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, Cairo; Professeur, Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne, Paris
KG Krzysztof Grzymski, Senior Curator, Egyptian Section, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
ZH Zahi Hawass, Director of the Monuments of Giza and Saqqara
MH Marsha Hill, Associate Curator, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Peter Jánosi, Research Associate, Institut fur Ägyptologie, Universität Vienna
SL-T Sophie Labbé-Toutée, Attachée au Département des Antiquités Égyptiennes, Musée du Louvre, Paris
DCP Diana Craig Patch, Egyptologist, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Elena Pischikova, Researcher, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
PR Patricia Rigault, Chargee d’Études Documentaires, Département des Antiquités Égyptiennes, Musée du Louvre, Paris
CHR Catharine H. Roehrig, Associate Curator, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
DW Dietrich Wildung, Director, Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin; Professor, Freie Universität, Berlin
CZ Christiane Ziegler, Conservateur General Charge du Departement des Antiquités Égyptiennes, Musée du Louvre, Paris
NOTES TO THE READER
The works in the catalogue section are arranged chronologically according to dynasty. Within each dynasty they are ordered by the reigns of individual kings. Works of uncertain date are placed in the period in which they are most likely to have originated. Royal commissions generally precede works that belonged to nonroyal individuals.
The spelling of ancient Egyptian names and terms is based on the transliteration of their hieroglyphic forms. Royal names are given in their transliterated hieroglyphic forms rather than in the often better known Greek versions. James R Allen translated or made consistent the inscriptions in essays and entries by authors from the Metropolitan Museum. In translations of ancient Egyptian texts, brackets indicate material that is missing from the original but can be restored. Parentheses enclose interpolations made for clarity.
The chronology on page xx is employed throughout for consistency but does not necessarily reflect the opinions of all contributors to the catalogue. The abbreviations B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era) have been used for dating.
In the headings of the catalogue entries, dimensions are abbreviated as follows: h., height; w., width; d., depth; l., length; diam., diameter.
Citations are abbreviated throughout the catalogue; full references are provided in the bibliography, which also includes material not cited in the text.
A NOTE ON EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY
Any chronology of Old Kingdom Egypt must be imprecise because historians do not agree about how to interpret the existing contemporary and later sources. Although there are Old Kingdom king lists, none that is both complete and contemporary is known. The Palermo Stone, which records the royal annals from the beginning of Egyptian history until the mid-Fifth Dynasty, is fragmentary. A similar text, recently assigned to the Sixth Dynasty, is very worn. All the other king lists postdate the period by one or two millennia: the Chapel of the Ancestors of Thutmose III, the Royal Canon of Turin, the lists from Saqqara and Abydos, and the various transcriptions of Manetho.
Further clouding the issue, Egyptian kings had several names (there were five in the titulary that was standardized beginning in the Fifth Dynasty: the Horus name, the Two Ladies name, the Horus of Gold name, a throne name, and a birth name). We do not always know all the names of Old Kingdom monarchs, and the monuments do not enumerate them systematically. Thus two distinct names inscribed on two monuments may be attributed to two different pharaohs, although in reality they belong to a single king, designated alternatively by one or the other name. As a result, the number of Old Kingdom rulers, the duration of their respective reigns, and even the order of succession are not always secure and vary according to the opinions of historians.
We are accustomed to absolute dates, given in relation to events that are considered starting points from which time unfolds in a linear fashion (for example, the Romans designated dates before or after the founding of Rome, and Christians record them before or after the birth of Jesus Christ). Our manner of understanding time seems to have been foreign to the Egyptians, who oriented themselves according to the reigns in which they lived and described dates in like fashion: such and such year of king so and so. This system notwithstanding, we could at least assign a length to the Old Kingdom by simply adding up the years and months of the reigns of its kings—if we knew with certainty the number and durations of those reigns. But, as we have seen, this is impossible. Moreover, since we do not have a single undisputed fixed reference point supplied by the objective date of an occurrence (such as an astronomical phenomenon or a concordance with a securely dated event that took place outside Egypt), it is very difficult to even propose a definitive date for the beginning of the period. Depending on the sources consulted, we may therefore find dates for any given event varying by as much as one hundred or two hundred years. Thus, all dates given here should be understood as approximations.
DYNASTIC AND REGNAL DATES
The following chronology is currently used by The Metropolitan Museum of Art; the dates do not necessarily reflect the opinions of all the scholars who have contributed to this catalogue. The names in parentheses preceded by equal signs are the more commonly used Greek equivalents of the ancient Egyptian names, which were first recorded by the traveler and historian Herodotus in the fifth century B.C.E. A name in parentheses preceded by the word «or» is an alternative form; Egyptologists are not certain which form of the name is correct.
ca. 5450-2960 B.C.E. PREDYNASTIC PERIOD
ca. 2960-2649 B.C.E. ARCHAIC PERIOD (First and Second Dynasties)
ca. 2649-2150 B.C.E. OLD KINGDOM (Third to Sixth Dynasty)
ca. 2150-2040 B.C.E. FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (Seventh to Early Eleventh Dynasty)
ca. 2040-1640 B.C.E. MIDDLE KINGDOM (Later Eleventh to Thirteenth Dynasty)
ca. 1991-1962 B.C.E. Amenemhat I (Twelfth Dynasty)
ca. 1640-1550 B.C.E. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (Fourteenth to Seventeenth Dynasty)
ca. 1550-1070 B.C.E. NEW KINGDOM (Eighteenth to Twentieth Dynasty)
ca. 1070-743 B.C.E. THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (Twenty-first to Early Twenty-fifth Dynasty)
743-332 B.C.E. LATE PERIOD (Later Twenty-fifth to Thirty-first Dynasty)
332-30 B.C.E. PTOLEMAIC PERIOD
30 B.C.E.-476 C.E. ROMAN PERIOD
OLD KINGDOM, ca. 2649-2150 B.C.E
Third Dynasty, ca. 2649-2575 b.c.e.
ca. 2649-2630 B.C.E. Zanakht
ca. 2630-2611 B.C.E. Djoser
ca. 2611-2605 B.C.E. Sekhemkhet
ca. 2605-2599 B.C.E. Khaba
ca. 2599-2575 B.C.E. Huni
Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2575-2465 B.C.E.
ca. 2575-2551 B.C.E. Snefru
ca. 2551-2528 B.C.E. Khufu (= Cheops)
ca. 2528-2520 B.C.E. Djedefre (or Radjedef)
ca. 2520-2494 B.C.E. Khafre (= Chephren)
ca. 2494-2490 B.C.E. Nebka II
ca. 2490-2472 B.C.E. Menkaure (= Mykerinos, Latinized: Mycerinus)
ca. 2472-2467 B.C.E. Shepseskaf
ca. 2467-2465 B.C.E. Djedefptah (=Thamphthis)
Fifth Dynasty, ca. 2465-2323 B.C.E.
ca. 2465-2458 B.C.E. Userkaf
ca. 2458-2446 B.C.E. Sahure
ca. 2446-2438 B.C.E. Neferirkare
ca. 2438-2431 B.C.E. Shepseskare
ca. 2431-2420 B.C.E. Neferefre (or Raneferef)
ca. 2420-2389 B.C.E. Niuserre
ca. 2389-2381 B.C.E. Menkauhor
ca. 2381-2353 B.C.E. Djedkare-Isesi
ca. 2353-2323 B.C.E. Unis
Sixth Dynasty, ca. 2323-2150 B.C.E.
ca. 2323-2291 B.C.E. Teti
ca. 2291-2289 B.C.E. Userkare
ca. 2289-2255 B.C.E. Pepi I
ca. 2255-2246 B.C.E. Merenre I
ca. 2246-2152 B.C.E. Pepi II
ca. 2152 B.C.E. Merenre II
ca. 2152-2150 B.C.E. Netjerkare Siptah (= Nitocris)
James P. Allen