Despite high expectations, productivity is frustratingly low in biopharmaceutical research and development. Although expenditures have increased, the number of new medicines resulting from human-genome sequencing has not. This means that a broad variety of diseases are not being treated effectively, in the developed or the developing worlds.
Advances in molecular sciences, corresponding to the sequencing of the human genome in the 1980’s, led to the identification of all the human proteins – large, complex molecules necessary for many of the body’s functions. Understanding the proteins’ roles then led to greater knowledge of the underlying causes of diseases. For example, mutations, or defects, at specific molecular locations in human DNA were found to be responsible for some cancers, raising the hope of developing successful therapies tailored to individual patients.… Seguir leyendo »