Henry M. Paulson Jr.

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We’re Living Through One of the Most Explosive Extinction Episodes Ever

Hay dos crisis que afectan al mundo natural. La primera es el cambio climático. Sus causas y consecuencias potencialmente catastróficas son bien conocidas. La segunda crisis ha recibido mucha menos atención y es menos conocida, pero sigue requiriendo la atención urgente de los gobernantes mundiales. Se trata del colapso de la biodiversidad, la suma de todas las cosas que viven en el planeta.

A medida que las especies desaparecen y las complejas relaciones entre los seres vivos y los sistemas se desgastan y rompen, el creciente daño a la biodiversidad del mundo presenta graves riesgos para las sociedades humanas.

La extinción de plantas y animales se está acelerando, se estima que va mil veces más rápido que los índices naturales anteriores a la aparición de los humanos.…  Seguir leyendo »

We’re Living Through One of the Most Explosive Extinction Episodes Ever

Twin crises afflict the natural world. The first is climate change. Its causes and potentially catastrophic consequences are well known. The second crisis has received much less attention and is less understood but still requires urgent attention by global policymakers. It is the collapse of biodiversity, the sum of all things living on the planet.

As species disappear and the complex relationships between living things and systems become frayed and broken, the growing damage to the world’s biodiversity presents dire risks to human societies.

The extinction of plants and animals is accelerating, moving an estimated 1,000 times faster than natural rates before humans emerged.…  Seguir leyendo »

Si bien los confinamientos han ralentizado la propagación del coronavirus en muchos países, su impacto económico ha sido devastador. Al mismo tiempo, debido a que hay menos pasajeros que se desplazan a diario al trabajo, se tienen fábricas paralizadas y la actividad es limitada en el ámbito de la construcción, los estragos que los humanos causamos en el medio ambiente se han puesto en evidencia.

En todo el mundo, las personas están experimentando una revitalización de su entorno natural, incluso a la par de tener que lidiar con el trágico costo humano de la pandemia COVID-19. Muchos habitantes de las ciudades ven cielos azules, escuchan el canto de los pájaros y respiran aire limpio por primera vez en años.…  Seguir leyendo »

How serious are China’s economic problems, and how big an impact will they have on the United States and world economies? Beijing and Washington, separately and jointly, will determine the answers.

First, both countries are essential to global growth, and both must carry out structural reforms to move their economies onto a growth-conducive footing for the long term.

One byproduct of China’s recent stock market volatility has been the emergence of a veritable army of “perma-bears” who believe the Chinese economy is essentially falling off a cliff. Growth in China is slowing and will continue to do so in years to come.…  Seguir leyendo »

There is a time for weighing evidence and a time for acting. And if there’s one thing I’ve learned throughout my work in finance, government and conservation, it is to act before problems become too big to manage.

For too many years, we failed to rein in the excesses building up in the nation’s financial markets. When the credit bubble burst in 2008, the damage was devastating. Millions suffered. Many still do.

We’re making the same mistake today with climate change. We’re staring down a climate bubble that poses enormous risks to both our environment and economy. The warning signs are clear and growing more urgent as the risks go unchecked.…  Seguir leyendo »

Next month, President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Li Keqiang will use an important meeting — the so-called Third Plenum of the Communist Party’s 18th National Congress — to unveil China’s priorities for reforming economic policy for the next decade.

Yet because it will probably decide only general policies, leaving the specifics for later, some cynics have already begun to dismiss the reforms as too little, too timid and too late. They note that a decade ago, a previous generation of leaders failed to reduce the influence of state-owned enterprises and to complete the economic reforms of the 1990s.

But I believe the prospects for restructuring China’s economy — bolstering the role of the market, expanding opportunities for small and medium-size businesses, allocating capital more efficiently and improving the balance between consumption and investment — are better than at any point since the 1990s.…  Seguir leyendo »

China is experiencing its most severe economic downturn in decades, and revitalizing its economic model is critical to future prosperity — not only in China, but around the world.

Central to that effort is the transformation of China’s cities. By adopting a new approach to urbanization, its leaders can assure more balanced investment, address a major source of debt, achieve a consumption windfall and clean up the country’s environment. Otherwise, China’s economic and environmental problems will worsen, with vast implications for the rest of the world.

China’s success has been built on two pillars: investment and exports. But after decades of growth, this model is delivering diminishing returns.…  Seguir leyendo »

We are going through a financial crisis more severe and unpredictable than any in our lifetimes. We have seen the failures, or the equivalent of failures, of Bear Stearns, IndyMac, Lehman Brothers, Washington Mutual, Wachovia, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the American International Group. Each of these failures would be tremendously consequential in its own right. But we faced them in succession, as our financial system seized up and severely damaged the economy.

By September, the government faced a systemwide crisis. After months of making the most of the authority we already had, we asked Congress for a comprehensive rescue package so we could stabilize our financial system and minimize further damage to our economy.…  Seguir leyendo »

Despite the scientific consensus that climate change is occurring, there remain sharp political disagreements both here in the United States and around the world about how policymakers should respond. Nowhere is this gap more profound than between developed and developing countries.

As our vigorous domestic debate shows, there is disagreement within America about whether we should take strong steps to limit greenhouse gas emissions if fast-growing emitters in the developing world do not make similar commitments. Yet nations such as China and India say that fossil fuels are essential to power their economies, raise living standards and pull millions of their people out of poverty.…  Seguir leyendo »