Ian Kershaw

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A yellow vest protestor at a demonstration in Bordeaux, France, protesting the rising costs for ordinary citizens to live there while the rich get richer. Nicolas Tucat/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

What does the European Union need in order to face the barrage of weighty problems before it today? Some propose “more Europe” — meaning more and deeper integration. But many Europeans have become reluctant to take that path, and Britain is about to forge a path of its own.

The challenges to the Continent are grave: Globalization’s bountiful rewards are neither evenly nor fairly spread. So the income gap has widened, economic success has become more cutthroat, and automation has reshaped employment. A consequence is that collective responsibility for the less well-off has been undermined; so have the sensibilities of communal experience, responsibility and ownership, all of which were more prevalent in the decades immediately after World War II, when the integration of Europe was a fragile dream.…  Seguir leyendo »

Lo que ocurrió en Alemania en 1933 nos recuerda la necesidad de cooperar para poner coto a los perros rabiosos que puedan surgir en la política mundial antes de que se vuelvan lo suficientemente peligrosos como para empezar a morder. ¿Podría suceder otra vez algo así? Esa es invariablemente la pregunta que se viene a la cabeza cuando se recuerda que la semana pasada se cumplieron 75 años de la entrega del poder a Hitler en Alemania. Ante las grandes tensiones y la inestabilidad a las que en la actualidad se enfrenta el mundo, la pregunta parece más pertinente que nunca.…  Seguir leyendo »

Could something like it happen again? That is invariably the first question that comes to mind when recalling that Hitler was given power in Germany 75 years ago last week. With the world now facing such great tensions and instability, the question seems more obvious than ever.

Hitler came to power in a democracy with a highly liberal Constitution, and in part by using democratic freedoms to undermine and then destroy democracy itself. That democracy, established in 1919, was a product of defeat in world war and revolution and was never accepted by most of the German elites, notably the military, large landholders and big industry.…  Seguir leyendo »