OTAN (Continuación)

After many weeks of claiming, dishonestly, that European allies “owe us a tremendous amount of money for many years back” — in fact, Europeans spend far more money on European defense than does the United States — and after referring to NATO members as “delinquent” and worse, President Trump appears to have handed America’s European allies an ultimatum Thursday: Pay up, spend 2 percent of gross domestic product on the military, do it fast — or the United States will pull out. We can “go it alone,” he told them, by some accounts.

During the news conference he gave afterward, Trump even claimed Europeans had caved in to his demands: They had agreed to reach the 2 percent target faster, he said, and they could possibly increase it to 4 percent in the future.…  Seguir leyendo »

Existe la preocupación, entre políticos y analistas, de que la Cumbre de la OTAN que se abre hoy en el nuevo cuartel general de Bruselas, sea escenario de otro desacuerdo entre el presidente norteamericano Donald Trump y sus socios europeos, e incluso de que estemos ante el comienzo del fin de la Alianza Atlántica. Se teme que Trump aproveche la ocasión para atacar a europeos y canadienses por los acuerdos comerciales y los niveles de gasto militar y que llegue incluso a negarse a respaldar la declaración final, que pretende resaltar la coherencia de la OTAN y el propósito común de los países miembros.…  Seguir leyendo »

El Tratado de Washington suscrito el 4 de abril de 1949 es el texto jurídico fundacional de la Alianza Atlántica. Desde entonces, durante casi siete décadas, la OTAN ha sido un factor esencial en el mantenimiento de la paz y la estabilidad en la zona euroatlántica. Con la incorporación de Montenegro el 5 de junio de 2017, son veintinueve los países miembros de la Alianza, que además tiene países socios en Europa, Asia y África en el marco de tres iniciativas aliadas. En la Asociación para la Paz participan veintiún países; en el Diálogo Mediterráneo, siete, y en la Iniciativa de Cooperación de Estambul, cuatro.…  Seguir leyendo »

President Trump was greeted by Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg as he arrived at NATO headquarters in Brussels on Wednesday.CreditDoug Mills/The New York Times

Not so long ago, Europeans believed that despite Donald Trump’s harsh words, Washington would never endanger its Cold War alliances. “Do not read his tweets, follow his actions,” senior American officials told their European colleagues when the conversation turned to the future of the trans-Atlantic relations.

How wrong we were to believe them. It was the tweets that really mattered in the end.

Within hours of the religiously anticipated NATO summit in Brussels today, President Trump was castigating Germany, historically one of America’s closest allies, claiming, ridiculously, that it is “captive” to Russia and calling NATO countries “delinquent.”

Clearly, Mr. Trump is ignoring European Council President Donald Tusk’s appeal: “Dear America, appreciate your allies.…  Seguir leyendo »

Donald Trump stands in front of the Warsaw Uprising Monument on Krasinski Square on 6 July 2017 in Warsaw, before delivering a speech where he argued that the future of Western civilization is at stake. Photo: Getty Images.

Robin Niblett talks to Jason Naselli about the key fault lines between the US president and his allies, as President Trump heads to the NATO summit, a visit to the United Kingdom and a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Is NATO fit for purpose? This question has been around since the end of the Cold War, but with continuing disagreement over defence spending and burden-sharing, the alliance is appearing increasingly dysfunctional. What is the path forward?

The irony is that NATO is increasingly fit for purpose as a military alliance. But the political alliance it is meant to represent is being called ever more into question.…  Seguir leyendo »

A new Russian frigate, the Admiral Makarov, is prepared for joining Russia's Black Sea fleet. Photo: Getty Images.

The NATO summit in Brussels on 11-12 July is likely to be highly political. The Atlantic alliance is increasingly polarised due to disagreements over burden-sharing arrangements, national contributions and transatlantic solidarity. But NATO members cannot let these disagreements get in the way of addressing the ‘Russian challenge’ – the increasing tensions with Moscow as the Kremlin explores the boundaries of escalation with the alliance and tried to destabilize it.

Prospects for improving relations with Moscow are minimal, especially in light of recent developments. The latest meeting of the NATO–Russia Council on 31 May (the first since October 2017) and the meeting between the chief of staff of the Russian armed forces, Valery Gerasimov, and the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joseph Dunford, on 8 June achieved very little.…  Seguir leyendo »

Scruffy, yellowish-brown buildings are bunched around a long courtyard; portable toilets and generators have been set up on the dusty ground beside. Inside, military-grade laptops, the kind that don’t break if you drop them, are arrayed along a series of tables, their cables spooling off onto the floor. Men from different countries, some dressed in camouflage, talk in low voices. A large map of Europe’s Baltic coast has been projected onto one of the walls, with different colored markers scattered across it.

This, dear readers, is the transatlantic alliance. But this is not the transatlantic alliance in theory, the one people are discussing right now, with so much concern, from Washington to Tallinn to Montreal.…  Seguir leyendo »

The commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples and US Naval Forces Europe and Africa, James Foggo, speaks with Jason Naselli about how military intervention is changing and how NATO is preparing for future threats.

Are the days of large-scale Western military interventions over?

No I don’t think they are because we can’t predict with 100 per cent accuracy what the next threat will be, or work out where the next war will be. So what’s important, as [the NATO] alliance, is that we remain strong.

The motto that I grew up with in the alliance came from my time with Admiral [James] Stavridis [former supreme allied commander Europe].…  Seguir leyendo »

Los ministros de Defensa de los países de la OTAN se reunieron en Bruselas los días 14 y 15 del pasado mes de febrero. La adaptación de la estructura de mando de la Alianza, el reparto de las cargas entre los aliados y los esfuerzos de la OTAN para proyectar estabilidad centraron la atención de los reunidos. Entre las decisiones tomadas por los ministros, destaca la relativa a la modernización de la estructura de mando para adaptarla a los cambios producidos en el entorno estratégico, prestando más atención a la seguridad marítima, a la movilidad logística y militar, así como a la defensa cibernética.…  Seguir leyendo »

Toda violencia contra las mujeres traiciona la promesa fundamental de igualdad de derechos y dignidad para las mujeres establecida en la Carta de Naciones Unidas. Es una de las principales razones por las que las mujeres se mantienen en una posición subordinada respecto a los hombres en la mayor parte del mundo.

En nuestras diferentes funciones hemos visto que aquellos conflictos en los que el cuerpo y los derechos de las mujeres son objeto de abuso sistemático duran más, causan heridas más profundas y son mucho más difíciles de resolver y superar. Poner fin a la violencia por razón de sexo es por consiguiente una cuestión vital para la paz y la seguridad, así como para la justicia social.…  Seguir leyendo »

All violence against women betrays the fundamental promise in the UN Charter of equal rights and dignity for women. It is one of the prime reasons why women remain in a subordinate position in relation to men in most parts of the world.

When this violence is committed as an act of war it tears apart families, creates mass displacement, and makes peace and reconciliation far harder to achieve. In fact, it is often designed expressly to achieve those goals as part of a military strategy.

Despite being prohibited by international law, sexual violence continues to be employed as a tactic of war in numerous conflicts from Myanmar to Ukraine and Syria to Somalia.…  Seguir leyendo »

Partisanship and contentiousness typically dominate Washington news. In the clamor, it’s easy to overlook the national consensus on a significant issue: the need to revitalize America’s most crucial security alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

I was nominated as United States ambassador to NATO by President Trump in late June. As I made my rounds of congressional offices before my confirmation hearing, I found near unanimity from Republicans and Democrats alike on NATO’s future.

There is no appreciable difference of views among the president, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis and senators of either party on the need to revitalize NATO so it can meet today’s security needs while maintaining the fundamental principle of Article 5 of the organization’s founding treaty — that an attack on one is an attack on all.…  Seguir leyendo »

«Creo que la política de los Estados Unidos debe ser apoyar a los pueblos libres que están resistiendo intentos de subyugación por parte de minorías armadas o presiones exteriores. Debemos actuar resuelta e inmediatamente». Estas palabras del presidente Truman en el Congreso el 12 de marzo de 1947 reflejan el núcleo de lo que ha quedado acuñado para la historia como la «doctrina Truman», y la toma de conciencia norteamericana de su responsabilidad como superpotencia a nivel mundial. También marcan el inicio de un capítulo que terminaría con la firma dos años más tarde del Tratado del Atlántico Norte.

El Tratado del Atlántico Norte se firmó el 4 de abril de 1949 y desde entonces, y hasta la desaparición de la Unión Soviética, Europa ha vivido durante toda la Guerra Fría con el temor a una agresión comunista a gran escala, pero ésta, gracias a la existencia de la OTAN y a la protección nuclear norteamericana, nunca tuvo lugar.…  Seguir leyendo »

“Whither NATO” is probably the greatest snoozer headline of the past half-century. It has been used on editorials, op-ed articles, think-tank reports — anyplace an editor wants to communicate, “I’ve been forced at gunpoint to publish this essay, but for God’s sake don’t read it.” If Donald Trump had done nothing more than to create a legitimate occasion for calling a newspaper article “Whither NATO,” his place in history would be assured. Small, but assured.

But Mr. Trump has gone further. He has actually put the future of NATO on the global agenda by saying, on his European trip in May, that the United States spends far more on the shared defense than our allies do.…  Seguir leyendo »

La réunion des dirigeants de l’OTAN, le 25 mai, à Bruxelles, est la première apparition du président Macron dans le cercle très personnalisé des sommets. L’ampleur de sa victoire et son engagement européen lui donnent une position forte, avant même les sommets qui suivront (G7, Union Européenne, G20). Au-delà des sujets prévisibles abordés ce jour – lutte contre le terrorisme, déploiement en Europe centrale, Afghanistan, efforts européens de financement de l’OTAN – un pays, la Turquie, retiendra l’attention à la table des chefs d’Etats.

Au sein de l’OTAN, Ankara semble prête à renoncer à participer, sous des motifs prétendument industriels, à la mise en place du bouclier anti-missiles, au profit d’un système russe – des missiles S400 – naturellement incompatible avec celui de l’OTAN.…  Seguir leyendo »

Mientras transcurre el primer viaje al exterior de Donald Trump como presidente, la agitación generada por el despido del director del FBI James Comey y la investigación en curso de los vínculos de su campaña electoral con Rusia lo persiguen. En ninguno de los lugares que visitará lo sucedido en Washington pesará más que en Bruselas, donde se reunirá con los líderes de la OTAN. Esos aliados norteamericanos estarán esperando dos cosas de Trump: la confirmación de que es consciente de los datos básicos de los asuntos europeos y señales de que está preparado para ejercer el tipo de liderazgo que la OTAN necesita hoy.…  Seguir leyendo »

Of the many foreign policy pledges that President Trump made as a candidate, one of the few worth keeping is to improve relations with Russia. Fueled most recently by Russian interference in the American election and differences over Syria, tensions between Washington and Moscow compromise American interests in Europe, the Middle East and beyond. If Mr. Trump is serious about reducing those tensions and mending ties with the Kremlin, he should use the occasion of this week’s summit conference in Brussels to call for a halt to NATO enlargement.

As is his style, Mr. Trump would be breaking with foreign policy orthodoxy — except this time, it would be fully warranted.…  Seguir leyendo »

The last year’s NATO summit, held in Warsaw on July 8-9, was all about the European allies expecting a strong reassurance from President Barack Obama of the US commitment to deter any Russia’s military adventurism and to defend the eastern flank of the alliance. The promised deployment of a rotational US armored brigade in Eastern Europe which started in January 2017 and a significant increase in funding for the European Reassurance Initiative (3.4 billion USD in 2017) provided a strong confirmation of this commitment. This year’s summit is a different story. While the European allies would like to hear again words of reassurance from the new US administration about maintaining in the future the same level of engagement to defend Europe and deter Russia; President Donald Trump is coming to attend the Brussels’ summit with an agenda on his own.…  Seguir leyendo »

Le 25 mai, le président français, Emmanuel Macron, et le président américain, Donald Trump, participent à leur premier sommet de l’OTAN. Le premier guidé par le souci d’une France forte dans une Europe qui protège ; le second guidé par le souci d’obtenir des engagements européens en matière de défense et de lutte contre le terrorisme. Rarement le contexte n’a été aussi favorable à la refondation de la défense européenne.

La sécurité est devenue depuis deux ans l’une des premières préoccupations des citoyens européens. La menace – attentats terroristes, cyberattaques, manœuvres militaires, intrusions aérienne et maritime – n’a jamais autant pesé sur la France et sur ses voisins européens : elle n’a plus de frontières.…  Seguir leyendo »

Todos los países miembros de la OTAN aceptaron en la cumbre de Gales de 2014 aumentar sus presupuestos de defensa. La decisión se adoptó a petición de la Administración de Obama y debido al deterioro del contexto estratégico tras la anexión rusa de Crimea, la guerra en Ucrania y la declaración del califato por el Daesh. El compromiso era llegar al 2% del PIB en 2024, del que un 20% se dedicaría a mejorar las capacidades.

Este jueves se reunirán en Bruselas los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno para recibir al nuevo presidente de Estados Unidos, una tradición en la OTAN, y aunque no tenga formato de cumbre, la nueva Administración estadounidense va a aprovechar la ocasión para pedir a sus aliados que detallen sus compromisos por escrito.…  Seguir leyendo »