ASEAN

¿Tiene la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN) fortaleza suficiente para prosperar en medio de las transformaciones regionales y globales de la actualidad? Aunque la expansión generalizada de la economía global no se detiene, fuerzas económicas, geoestratégicas y tecnológicas disruptivas pueden poner en riesgo los avances logrados en años recientes por la ASEAN. Para sobrevivir, sus miembros deben tomar importantes decisiones sobre el papel que la comunidad que forman tendrá en los asuntos regionales. Si eligen bien, la región puede convertir la disrupción en una oportunidad para un futuro sostenible.

En las últimas cinco décadas la ASEAN dio un giro impresionante.…  Seguir leyendo »

Me complace el hecho de que mi primera reunión con los líderes de la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN) se produzca en un momento histórico: el 50.º aniversario de su fundación. En estos cincuenta años se dio una transformación total, no sólo en mi país (la República de Corea), sino en casi toda Asia. La ASEAN, con su labor de movilización y difusión del dinamismo económico, ha sido esencial para el éxito de la región.

Para Corea, la ASEAN ha sido ciertamente un amigo especial y valioso. Sólo el año pasado, unos seis millones de coreanos visitaron estados miembros de la ASEAN, como turistas o por negocios.…  Seguir leyendo »

A medida que la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN) se acerca a su 50 aniversario, mismo que se celebrará el próximo año, su fracaso en llegar a un consenso sobre las reivindicaciones territoriales chinas en el Mar de China Meridional ha suscitado preocupaciones en toda la región. Si bien el requisito que dicta que todas las decisiones deben ser tomadas por consenso permite que  Estados miembros dispares se unan; y, simultáneamente, protejan sus intereses nacionales, también limita la eficacia de la ASEAN en cuanto a enfrentar amenazas emergentes a la seguridad.

La regla de consenso explica por qué la ASEAN no presentó un frente unido después de los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001 en Estados Unidos y durante la posterior guerra contra el terrorismo liderada por E.E.U.U.…  Seguir leyendo »

A ruling from The Hague next week on maritime disputes in the South China Sea is likely to exacerbate frictions between China and the U.S. Both would be better off respecting the central role of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Expecting an unfavorable decision by the Permanent Court of Arbitration on the Philippines’ challenge to its extensive maritime claims, China has intensified its long-held policy of divide-and-rule to prevent ASEAN from closing ranks behind the legal process.

At a meeting in Kunming last month, Beijing managed to force the ten members of ASEAN to recall a jointly agreed statement which expressed “serious concerns over recent and ongoing developments, which have eroded trust and confidence” in the South China Sea.…  Seguir leyendo »

La próxima semana, durante una cumbre a celebrarse en California, EE.UU., el presidente Barack Obama se reunirá con los líderes de los diez países que conforman el grupo regional más importante de Asia: la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN). El evento, la primera cumbre entre Estados Unidos y la ASEAN en suelo americano, está siendo promocionado como una señal del creciente interés que tiene Estados Unidos en el sudeste asiático. La interrogante es si EE.UU., al invitar a todos los miembros de la ASEAN, ha permitido que sus intereses apabullen a sus principios.

La próxima cumbre es la más reciente manifestación de la “estrategia del pivote” de la administración del presidente Obama con respecto al Asia – una estrategia de seguridad nacional que implica un desplazamiento de recursos estadounidenses, tanto diplomáticos, económicos y de las fuerzas armadas, hacia los países de la costa del Pacífico.…  Seguir leyendo »

Tener una buena reputación de integridad y decencia es de importancia tanto en las relaciones internacionales como en la vida personal y profesional. Los Estados que son considerados como íntegros y decentes de manera consistente se desempeñan mejor de lo esperado – los Estados escandinavos son prueba patente de ello. Por el contrario, los que nunca ganan dicha reputación – o la dilapidan – pueden poner en serio peligro sus propios intereses, arriesgando el comercio internacional, el turismo, la inversión extranjera, el apoyo político en foros y negociaciones internacionales, y la seguridad de sus propios ciudadanos en el extranjero.

Tres de los Estados más importantes del sudeste de Asia – Malasia, Tailandia, y más recientemente Indonesia – se han metido en problemas, por su propia cuenta, durante los últimos meses.…  Seguir leyendo »

Can 10 countries with different cultures, traditions, languages, political systems and levels of economic development act in concert to expand their collective potential? That’s the question with which the Association of Southeast Asian Nations has wrestled for decades.

Judging by their leaders’ ambitious vision for cooperation, the answer may be yes.

What began as a straightforward push to reduce trade tariffs has evolved into a blueprint for a dynamic open market of 600 million consumers and a production base that can compete directly with the world’s largest economies. Once in place, the ASEAN economic community (AEC) will transform Southeast Asia — and its role in the global economy.…  Seguir leyendo »

¿Pueden diez países con culturas, tradiciones, idiomas, sistemas políticos y niveles de desarrollo económico diferentes aumentar su potencial colectivo actuando en forma coordinada? Hace décadas que la Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ASEAN) se esfuerza por responder esta pregunta. Y a juzgar por los ambiciosos planes de cooperación de sus líderes, la respuesta tal vez sea afirmativa.

Lo que comenzó como una simple iniciativa de reducción de aranceles se ha convertido en un proyecto para la creación de un dinámico mercado abierto con 600 millones de consumidores y una base de producción capaz de competir directamente con las mayores economías del mundo.…  Seguir leyendo »

For a long time China has prided itself on the gradual improvement and solidification of its relations with the countries of the Assn. of Southeast Asian Nations, mainly through economic means. Since Deng Xiaoping in the 1970s, Chinese leaders have emphasized the significance of shedding decades, if not centuries, of mistrust and confrontation and moving toward cooperation and integration. The China-ASEAN free-trade zone, which came into effect four years ago, was intended to be the symbol of this new relationship.

Over the last five years or so, however, many of the most promising aspects of this cooperation have come into doubt.…  Seguir leyendo »

China’s new president, Xi Xinping, has discarded former leader Deng Xiaoping’s cautious foreign policy of “bide our time, hide our capabilities,” by mounting increasing military challenges to America’s Asian allies and to U.S. leadership.

China’s bullying tactics in the East China Sea and South China Sea will only increase with its expanding military might despite President Obama’s much-heralded pivot to Asia. The pivot is not enough. Washington must elevate regional military cooperation if China is to be deterred.

Coming on the heels of China’s declaration of an air-defense identification zone over the East China Sea, Beijing continued its bullying tactics in its Dec.…  Seguir leyendo »

India’s “Look East” policy was once again in focus earlier this month as Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh went to Brunei and Indonesia on a four-day visit to boost India’s profile in a region increasingly crucial for India’s economic revival and for its strategic goals.

The prime minister took part in the 11th India-ASEAN Summit and the 8th East Asian Summit at Brunei Darussalam, then went on a bilateral visit to Indonesia.

As the prime minister has rightly observed, India’s engagement with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations now forms the cornerstone of Delhi’s Look East policy, but it was his trip to Indonesia that was watched more closely.…  Seguir leyendo »

Myanmar last week took the baton from the Sultan of Brunei, assuming the rotating chair in 2014 of Asia’s most important regional organization, the 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

In December the country otherwise known as Burma will also host the Southeast Asia Games, a coming-out party for a nation emerging from a half-century of military repression.

These are stunning signs of Myanmar’s rapid rehabilitation from international pariah status following the slaughter of monks during the Saffron Revolution in 2007. Nonetheless, Myanmar remains convulsed by communal violence and anti-Muslim pogroms, generating risks for ASEAN’s unity and reputation.

ASEAN was established in 1967 and, with its headquarters in Jakarta, it has since become the fulcrum of regionalization, expanding membership, initiating dialogues and packing the annual schedule with numerous conferences that have promoted diplomacy in a region coping with various challenges to peace and stability.…  Seguir leyendo »

Rising tensions in the South China Sea have changed recent ASEAN-China relations from cooperation to potential conflict. Yet there is now agreement to begin consultations on a Code of Conduct to manage the issue.

Since his appointment, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi has also visibly upgraded engagement with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Marking the 10th anniversary of their strategic partnership, a recent High Level Forum proceeded positively with high officials and tank experts from both sides. Is there substance beneath the ceremonies? Are relations turning more positive?

This won’t be the first time to patch over difficulties. The Chinese Communist Party’s post-World War II support for communist movements in the region meant that diplomatic relations were not normalized until 1991.…  Seguir leyendo »

In recent years, Indonesia has emerged as a robust democracy with a dynamic economy. Now, as the largest and most influential member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Indonesia must leverage its newly acquired strength to confront the challenges facing it and its regional partners, while avoiding foreign policy recklessness.

Indonesia has reason to be confident. Less than two decades after the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis ravaged the economy and provoked a social and political upheaval that ended President Suharto’s three-decade-long rule, Indonesia is a member of the Group of 20 and boasts the world’s 15th highest GDP.

Moreover, Indonesia’s mainly Muslim population is predominantly moderate, and the country has been able to overcome most of its internal security problems, including the secessionist movement in Aceh and various large-scale communal conflicts.…  Seguir leyendo »

As the world order shifts, with the United States being challenged by the rise of China, leaders in Beijing have begun to readjust their position toward Southeast Asia to strengthen its allies.

More importantly, this is also part of China’s desire to maintain its sphere of influence in the region.

Over 10 years, China has successfully made inroads into several countries in Southeast Asia with the primary aim of manipulating their policies in ways that are beneficial to Chinese interests.

Already, strong ties between China and these states, particularly in mainland Southeast Asia, have had considerable impact on the unity of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).…  Seguir leyendo »

Dans un monde caractérisé par la prolifération des accords commerciaux (et d’investissement) bilatéraux, les organisations économiques régionales traditionnelles risquent de perdre leur raison d’être. Ce risque est particulièrement marqué pour l’Association des nations de l’Asie du Sud-Est (Asean), fondée en août 1967 par cinq pays – l’Indonésie, la Malaisie, les Philippines, Singapour et la Thaïlande – dans le triple objectif d’accélérer la croissance économique, de promouvoir la paix et la stabilité régionale et d’encourager la coopération et l’assistance mutuelle sur des questions d’intérêt commun. Malgré plusieurs élargissements au cours des années 1990, pour inclure des pays à économie «socialiste» (Cambodge, Laos et Vietnam), en voie de libéralisation, et de nombreuses initiatives de haut niveau pour faire progresser les engagements collectifs de libéralisation, l’Asean a, dans les grandes lignes, échoué à susciter et accompagner la mise en œuvre d’une vigoureuse libéralisation des échanges commerciaux entre ses membres.…  Seguir leyendo »

By Michael J. Green, a senior director for Asian affairs at the National Security Council from January 2004 to December 2005. He is at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and Georgetown University (THE WASHINGTON POST, 13/02/07):

Last month the leaders of 16 Asian nations met in the Philippines for the second East Asian Summit and agreed to work for better energy security and reduced poverty. The 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) signed an agreement with China on trade and services and pledged to work toward a broader free-trade agreement. President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo of the Philippines, a traditional U.S.…  Seguir leyendo »