China (Continuación)

Le Plaza à China City, Los Angeles, 1940. Photo Mary Evans. Rue des Archives

C’est la fin des années 30, nous sommes à Los Angeles. Mettons qu’il vous prenne l’envie de vous évader. Vous en avez assez de la vie moderne et trépidante, et voulez passer un peu de temps de loisir dans un endroit qui vous sorte du quotidien, vous amuse et vous fasse rêver. Bien sûr, il y a le cinéma. Bien sûr, il y a les piers des plages de Venice ou Santa Monica, où vous trouverez les mêmes manèges qu’à Coney Island (New York). En fait, vous voudriez un mélange des deux : un parc d’attractions qui vous raconte l’histoire d’un film, ou un film dans lequel vous pourriez vous promener.…  Seguir leyendo »

El rápido ascenso económico de China durante las últimas décadas ha asombrado al mundo. No obstante, las razones detrás del éxito del país a menudo se mal entienden y se mal interpretan.

El ascenso de China se atribuye ampliamente a su capitalismo de Estado mediante el cual el gobierno, al estar dotado con grandes activos, puede ir tras la consecución de una política industrial de amplio alcance y puede intervenir para mitigar los riesgos. Por consiguiente, China debe su éxito, primordialmente, al “control” que tiene el gobierno sobre la totalidad de su economía.

Esta explicación es fundamentalmente errónea. Es cierto que China se ha beneficiado de tener un gobierno con la capacidad de implementar políticas integrales y complementarias de manera eficiente.…  Seguir leyendo »

A protester blocking a train door during a general strike in Hong Kong on Monday.CreditAnthony Wallace/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Anyone who thought that the antigovernment demonstrations rocking Hong Kong this summer were just the doing of radicalized youngsters should think again. On Monday, the first general strike in the city in about 50 years brought the territory to a near-halt. The protesters making front page news are supported by Hong Kongers from all walks of life, whether or not they, too, take to the streets.

Hong Kong’s labor laws allow strikes only against one’s employer, not for general political causes. Yet the Confederation of Hong Kong Trade Unions announced that more than 350,000 people participated, calling in sick or taking the day off.…  Seguir leyendo »

En una magnífica Tercera, el director de ABC, Bieito Rubido, nos ha invitado a entender a China. Nada más puesto en razón. China es ya la segunda potencia económica mundial y pretende ser la primera en poco tiempo. Y no sólo eso. Aspira a ser la mayor potencia global del planeta a mediados de este siglo. En todos los terrenos. Desarrollando una estrategia muy bien definida y ejecutada con ambición y determinación. La fecha fijada es el año 2049, cien años después de la creación de la República Popular China, una vez ganada la guerra civil que se desarrolla a raíz de la derrota japonesa en la II Guerra Mundial.…  Seguir leyendo »

Protesters amid tear gas near China’s Liaison Office in Hong Kong last month.CreditTyrone Siu/Reuters

The effects of the Hong Kong protests are spreading — to bakeries, bandits and Beijing.

As messages supporting the demonstrations began appearing on the pastry skin of seasonal mooncakes, opposition to the protests suddenly took the form of muscle from the local mafia. The protesters, for their part, have recently taken to pointedly marching toward mainland China’s formal representation in the city — and to accusing both the Hong Kong police and the Chinese authorities in Beijing of enlisting criminals to do their dirty work.

On Monday, the spokesman of the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, China’s top outpost in the city, finally broke its studied silence about the massive, monthslong revolts.…  Seguir leyendo »

La primera vez que visité Estados Unidos fue en 1965, gracias a una beca estudiantil financiada por un generoso filántropo de Boston. Desde ese viaje, que me permitió conocer Nueva York, California y Alabama, entre otros lugares, he sido un americanófilo convencido. Me encanta el país y lo he visitado más a menudo que cualquier otro, con excepción del Reino Unido y Europa Occidental.

Admiro a Estados Unidos por su cultura, su espíritu de emprendimiento y sus universidades, y tengo muchos amigos estadounidenses. Además, sé lo agradecido que tiene que estar el resto del planeta por el liderazgo estadounidense tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial.…  Seguir leyendo »

China ha representado un país misterioso para los españoles desde tiempos inmemoriales. Su lejanía, su brumosa Historia y su milenaria cultura han conformado un arcano de compleja comprensión por nuestra parte. Ahora bien, no esforzarse por entender a la China actual sería una negligencia de difícil perdón. Es imprescindible asimilar la enorme transformación que vive aquel país para formarse una idea cabal de lo que ocurre en el resto del planeta. Ellos tienen su propia ruta, y nunca mejor dicho.

Mientras Trump pretende gobernar el mundo con su «America First» sin gastarse los recursos necesarios, en China emerge la innovación tecnológica más intensiva del momento.…  Seguir leyendo »

Uighur men after prayers at a mosque in the Xinjiang region of China in May.CreditCreditGreg Baker/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The Chinese government’s campaign of internment in the northwestern region of Xinjiang is extraordinary, by dint of its scale — but also, its contradictions.

Up to 1.5 million people from predominantly Muslim Turkic minorities — Uighurs, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz — have been arbitrarily detained in political re-education camps designed in part to make them renounce their religious beliefs.

At times, the Chinese authorities have portrayed this mass detention campaign as a “strict preventative measure” against violent extremist ideologies. At others, they have called it a benign “vocational training” initiative, comparing detainees to “boarding school students.”

But eyewitnesses — as well as the government’s own documents — reveal that these facilities are prisonlike internment camps that rely on intensive brainwashing procedures and forms of psychological torture.…  Seguir leyendo »

El valor de una China global

SHANGHÁI – En el curso de casi 40 años de reforma económica, China ha cosechado frutos extraordinarios a partir de su apertura al mundo. La integración a la economía global –aunque un elemento secundario del histórico giro más amplio del país hacia el mecanismo de mercado- ha permitido que millones de ciudadanos de China salieran de la pobreza, transformando al mismo tiempo a China en la economía más grande del mundo en términos de paridad de poder adquisitivo. Y el potencial de semejante compromiso no se va a agotar por ahora, según muestra nuestra nueva investigación.

Por ejemplo, mientras que China domina el 11% del comercio de mercancías global, representa solamente el 6% del comercio global en servicios.…  Seguir leyendo »

Protesters raised a black and bloodied rendering of the Hong Kong flag outside the Legislative Council building on Monday.CreditCreditLam Yik Fei for The New York Times

July 1, the anniversary of the day that Hong Kong was reunified with mainland China in 1997, ought to be an occasion for celebration. It marks the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under the “one country, two systems” — the first such region in China. Yet on Monday, the date’s 22nd anniversary, guests received instructions to go to a confidential location before being ferried to the site of the ceremony.

Celebrations of Hong Kong’s handover from Britain have been punctuated by sporadic protests over the years. The former legislator Leung Kwok-hung, also known as Long Hair, typically tries to disrupt the proceedings by shouting out antigovernment slogans from a distance.…  Seguir leyendo »

The violent suppression 10 years ago on July 5 of a protest march in Urumqi, the capital of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in western China, was a pivotal moment in the struggle of the Uighur people to defend their rights. For the Uighurs, the crackdown meant the end of any hope that the Chinese authorities might heed their call to redress mounting grievances over economic marginalization and political and cultural repression. And for the Chinese government, it signaled the urgent need to intensify repression of the Muslim Uighur minority, which it justifies in the name of fighting terrorism.

The stepped-up repression is being carried out through a series of military, political, economic and surveillance programs that constitute the most comprehensive system of population control and oppression anywhere in the world today.…  Seguir leyendo »

After breaking into Hong Kong’s legislature, protesters left a message for Carrie Lam, the city’s top government official, spray-painted on a pillar: “It was you who taught me that peaceful protests are futile.”

To the young activists, the storming of the Legislative Council was an act of desperation. Three times in the past month, tremendous numbers of Hong Kongers — at one point estimated to be more than two million — marched peacefully to protest against a controversial extradition bill with China, which they fear would undermine Hong Kong’s judiciary and its freedom. The government suspended but did not withdraw the law.…  Seguir leyendo »

When hundreds of thousands of my fellow Hong Kongers took to the streets to demonstrate last month, most of the world saw people protesting provocative legislation that would allow extraditions to mainland China.

But the Chinese government, which supported the extradition measure, had a much broader view of the protests. It recognized them as the first salvo in a new cold war, one in which the otherwise unarmed Hong Kong people wield the most powerful weapon in the fight against the Chinese Communist Party: moral force.

In much of the West, moral force is underestimated. Communists never make that mistake. There is a reason Beijing will never invite the pope or the Dalai Lama for a visit to China.…  Seguir leyendo »

Protesters surrounded police headquarters in Hong Kong on June 21.CreditPaula Bronstein/Getty Images

The protests that have roiled Hong Kong for weeks, combining vast marches with small guerrilla operations of civil disobedience, are not the radical development that some say. They are a natural extension of protests past — an upgrade of the 2014 Umbrella Movement’s peaceful tactics of occupation. And they are a natural reaction to changing political circumstances, including a proposed bill that would allow, in effect, the extradition to mainland China of anyone in Hong Kong wanted by the Chinese authorities. The Chinese government’s power grab is accelerating the metabolism of the city’s protest movement.

Most of the leaders of past protests have been sidelined.…  Seguir leyendo »

This Isn’t About Iran. It’s About China

In a world of global financial markets, 5G networks and cyberwar, geography still rules. The two shipping lanes in the Strait of Hormuz, each two miles wide, hold the key to the Persian Gulf and roughly half of the world’s proven oil reserves and production capacity. That is why the recent attacks, widely assumed to have been ordered by Iran, on tankers in the Gulf of Oman, a strategic waterway just outside the Strait, have frayed geopolitical nerves the world over.

The Iranians understand that because geography is so precious in the Gulf region, small actions have magnified effects. Likewise, the Americans know that in the constricted waters of the Gulf, their large warships are prone to attacks by Iranian swarm boats, even as Iran’s proximity to Saudi Arabia threatens that fragile kingdom and American ally.…  Seguir leyendo »

Tema

¿Cuál es el estado actual del desarrollo de capacidades tecnológicas de la economía China y cuáles los desafíos que afrontará en el corto y medio plazo para posicionarse y consolidarse como líder mundial en innovación?

Resumen

En los últimos años el Gobierno chino ha implementado un ambicioso plan de políticas públicas encaminadas a construir una economía innovadora, que responde al objetivo más amplio de virar el crecimiento económico hacia un patrón más equilibrado, sostenible y con mayor peso en actividades de alto valor añadido. China ha logrado notables éxitos en el campo de la innovación y la tecnología en un tiempo récord, lo que ha despertado el asombro en gobiernos, empresas y sociedad civil a lo largo del mundo, y numerosos análisis se han apresurado a anunciar la irrupción de un nuevo líder mundial en innovación para las próximas décadas.…  Seguir leyendo »

A picture of Mao Zedong and Kim Il-sung on a remaining section of the Hekou Broken Bridge, which connected China and North Korea before it was bombed by the United States Army during the Korean War.CreditEuropean Pressphoto Agency

As President Xi Jinping of China left North Korea on Friday afternoon, much attention was focused on whether he had obtained any concession on denuclearization from Kim Jong-un, North Korea’s leader — and how he might leverage that when he meets President Trump this week on the margins of the G-20 summit. But this focus on nuclear weapons and China’s trade war with the United States obscures the real significance of Mr. Xi’s trip, and it mistakes his weakness for strength.

As notable as the pomp and ceremony of the rare meeting — the first visit to Pyongyang by a Chinese head of state in 14 years — was the lack of specifics about policy to emerge from it.…  Seguir leyendo »

El 9 de junio, un millón de chinos se manifestaron en Hong Kong contra una ley de extradición que Pekín exige y apoya el gobernador local, un fantoche a las órdenes del Partido Comunista. Esta protesta masiva, que coincide, y no por casualidad, con el trigésimo aniversario de la masacre de la Plaza de Tiananmen, debería recordarnos algunas lecciones fundamentales cuando se habla de China. No todos los chinos viven en China; unos cien millones escapan a la autoridad de Pekín en Hong Kong, Taiwán, Malasia, Indonesia o Estados Unidos. Las universidades estadounidenses acogen cada año a 250.000 estudiantes procedentes del continente, la mitad de los cuales se cuida mucho de no regresar a su país.…  Seguir leyendo »

Students holding Chinese national flags watch the live broadcast of the 40th anniversary celebration of China's reform and opening-up at Huaibei Normal University on 18 December. Photo: Getty Images.

China’s adherence to the rules-based international system is selective, prioritizing certain rules in favour of others. States supportive of that ‘system’ – or, as some argue, systems[1] – should identify areas of mutual strategic interest so that they can draw China further into the global rules-based order and leverage China as a constructive player that potentially also contributes to improvements in such areas. This is particularly apposite at a time when the US is in retreat from multilateralism and Russia seems bent on disrupting the rules-based international order.

Supportive player

There are many reasons for actively engaging with China on mutual areas of interest.…  Seguir leyendo »

Las Naciones Unidas esperan que el 68% de la población mundial viva en zonas urbanas en 2050. En tanto los gobiernos se esfuerzan por gestionar esta ola de migración urbana, deben abordar no sólo las necesidades básicas como vivienda y empleo sino también cuestiones que tienen impacto en la habitabilidad y en la salud pública –incluida la contaminación ambiental.

En ningún otro lugar este desafío es más urgente que en Asia. En los últimos meses, ciudades como Bangkok, Seúl, Katmandú y Dhaka han enfrentado episodios importantes de contaminación. Pero aún en sus niveles actuales, el 99% de las ciudades en el sur de Asia y el 89% en el este de Asia superan las directrices de exposición de la Organización Mundial de la Salud.…  Seguir leyendo »