Conflicto palestino-israelí

El objetivo de dos estados para dos naciones, que viven lado a lado dentro de fronteras seguras, ha sido la base del proceso de paz palestino-israelí desde los Acuerdos de Oslo de 1993. Pero a pesar de todos los intentos y propósitos, está muerto y enterrado. Y quizá la razón más importante sea que el objetivo de dos estados ya no se corresponda con los hechos en el terreno.

Sin duda, la Organización para la Liberación de Palestina (OLP) todavía respalda la solución de dos estados. No le interesa ningún acuerdo interino que, como ha demostrado la experiencia, las coaliciones de extrema derecha de Israel podrían extender indefinidamente, utilizando el interminable proceso de paz como una excusa política para una ocupación y un asentamiento continuos en tierras palestinas.…  Seguir leyendo »

A view of the wall dividing Jerusalem, in background, from the Palestinian town of Abu Dis in the West Bank.CreditCreditAmmar Awad/Reuters

If you are reading this, you’ve most likely seen much about “the Israeli-Palestinian conflict” in the pages of this newspaper and of every other important newspaper in the West. That phrase contains a few important assumptions. That the conflict is between two actors, Israelis and Palestinians. That it could be resolved by those two actors, and particularly by the stronger side, Israel. That it’s taking place in the corner of the Middle East under Israeli rule.

Presented this way, the conflict has become an energizing issue on the international left and the subject of fascination of many governments, including the Trump administration, which has been working on a “deal of the century” to solve it.…  Seguir leyendo »

Manifestants palestiniens aux abords de la frontière israélienne. Est de Gaza City, 11 janvier 2019. © MAHMUD HAMS/AFP

Lors d’un récent voyage à Jérusalem, une amie m’a offert un t-shirt où l’on voit le dessin de quatre hommes en train de s’esclaffer, se tenant le ventre de rire. Leur hilarité répond à la question inscrite en haut du t-shirt: «La paix au Proche-Orient?» Ce dessin résume l’impossibilité de croire aujourd’hui en la paix entre Palestiniens et Israéliens. Les faits sont là et ils sont têtus: la colonisation et l’occupation israélienne se poursuivent en Cisjordanie, de violents affrontements opposent périodiquement Gaza et l’armée israélienne et aucune lueur d’espoir d’un règlement pacifique n’apparaît à l’horizon. Quant aux élections israéliennes, en avril prochain, elles ne devraient rien apporter de très réjouissant.…  Seguir leyendo »

‘Terrorism is the use of force against civilians for political purposes. By this definition Operation Cast Lead was an act of state terrorism.’ Palestinian women in Jebaliya, January 2009. Photograph: Hatem Moussa/AP

This month marks the 10th anniversary of the first major military assault on the 2 million Palestinians of the Gaza Strip. After its unilateral withdrawal from Gaza in 2005, Israel turned the area into the biggest open-door prison on Earth. The two hallmarks of Israel’s treatment of Gaza since then have been mendacity and the utmost brutality towards civilians.

On 27 December 2008, Israel launched Operation Cast Lead, pounding the densely populated strip from the air, sea and land for 22 days. It was not a war or even “asymmetric warfare” but a one-sided massacre. Israel had 13 dead; the Gazans had 1,417 dead, including 313 children, and more than 5,500 wounded.…  Seguir leyendo »

La decisión de Airbnb de eliminar de su oferta los alojamientos ofrecidos por colonos en los territorios ocupados es una decisión positiva y apropiada. De hecho, lo único que hay que preguntarse es por qué no se tomó antes y por qué otras empresas multinacionales siguen beneficiándose de los asentamientos.

Es importante destacar que Airbnb no está haciendo el boicoteo a Israel. Todo lo contrario: su nueva política establece una distinción entre Israel y los territorios palestinos ocupados por Israel. Al mismo tiempo que la empresa elimina las viviendas situadas en asentamientos ilegales, promueve Tel Aviv como una de las 23 ciudades más recomendables para visitar de todo el mundo.…  Seguir leyendo »

Palestina, nostalgia de la flor de azahar

En 1949, un grupo de notables palestinos expulsados de Jaffa al establecerse el Estado de Israel y refugiados en Líbano envió un elaborado manifiesto a Washington. En él, cándidamente, escribían: “Dado que las Naciones Unidas han demostrado hasta ahora ser tan débiles como para no poder forzar a los judíos a comportarse de acuerdo con el derecho internacional, nos dirigimos en demanda de ayuda al Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, poderosa y generosa nación, dispuesta a defender los derechos del hombre y la libertad de los pueblos…”.

Había en el documento una significativa alusión a la industria cítrica: “Ha pasado ya un año desde que la gente abandonó sus huertas.…  Seguir leyendo »

Israel and Hamas again approached the brink of war this week. This latest conflagration began Sunday night when Israeli special forces carried out a covert operation into the Gaza Strip, Hamas fighters caught them, and a gunfight ensued. In the 25 hours that followed, Hamas fired hundreds of rockets at southern Israel, and Israel pounded Gaza with airstrikes. By the time a truce took hold Tuesday, one Israeli and 14 Gazans had been killed, in addition to one West Bank Palestinian killed by a Hamas rocket in Israel.

The rapid pace of escalation leaves observers with many questions. Why did Israel carry out this military operation at a time when many were heralding novel progress in diplomatic steps toward alleviating tensions between Israel and Hamas?…  Seguir leyendo »

Israel arrests 4 activists in Bedouin hamlet

Something extraordinary has happened this week at the Palestinian Bedouin village of al-Khan al-Ahmar, on the eastern outskirts of Jerusalem and adjacent to the main road going south toward Jericho and the Dead Sea. First, there is the remarkable fact that the village still exists—after months of waiting, day by day, for the bulldozers of the Israeli army to arrive to demolish it. But even more astonishing is the fact that, for several days, over a hundred activists—Palestinians, Israelis, and a few internationals—faced the heavily armed soldiers and the riot police, not known for their gentle ways, and triumphed, at least for the moment.…  Seguir leyendo »

Lara Alqasem was barred from entering Israel because Israeli authorities claim she supported and took part in campaigns boycotting the country.CreditCreditAlqasem family, via Associated Press

In March, the writer Andrew Sullivan described each of us as a “Zionist fanatic of near-unhinged proportions.” It was a cheap shot. The word “near” should not have been a part of the sentence.

Otherwise, we happily plead guilty as charged.

Yet even unhinged Zionists can level criticism at Israeli policies, and the story of Lara Alqasem is a case in point.

Ms. Alqasem, 22, is an American student of Palestinian descent who arrived in Israel last Tuesday with an Israeli-issued visa to study in a master’s program at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. But she never made it out of the airport.…  Seguir leyendo »

From left, President Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt, President Jimmy Carter and Prime Minister Menachem Begin signing the preliminary Camp David Accords in 1978. Credit Credit Wally McNamee/Corbis, via Getty Images

This week, Israelis and Egyptians commemorate the signing 40 years ago of the Camp David Accords, the agreement that led to the first peace treaty between Israel and an Arab state. Through this peace deal, Egypt secured the return of the Sinai Peninsula, which it had lost in the 1967 War, and Israel neutralized its military threat from the southwest while gaining crucial recognition in the Middle East.

Americans will no doubt take pride in this anniversary, recalling their role in mediating the negotiations that led to the accords, which are still regarded as the leading diplomatic achievement of Jimmy Carter’s presidency.…  Seguir leyendo »

Palestinos lanzaron piedras en respuesta a la intervención de las fuerzas israelíes durante un mitin antiocupación cerca de la Franja de Gaza el 18 de septiembre. crédito Mustafa Hassona/Anadolu Agency, vía Getty Images

Esta semana se celebra el cuarenta aniversario de los Acuerdos de Camp David, el punto máximo del proceso de paz en el Medio Oriente. Solo hemos retrocedido desde entonces. Es lamentable.

En vez de avanzar, los israelíes y los palestinos parecen acercarse cada vez más a una ruptura total. Sin algún progreso drástico, hay una probabilidad real de que se derrumbe la incierta gobernanza palestina, e Israel tendrá que hacerse responsable de la salud, la educación y el bienestar de 2,5  millones de palestinos en Cisjordania. Israel tendría que decidir si gobernar Cisjordania con una autoridad legal o dos, lo cual implicaría elegir entre el binacionalismo y el apartheid, ambos desastrosos para la democracia judía.…  Seguir leyendo »

The Massacre Of Palestinians In Sabra And Shatilah In Beirut, Lebanon On September 21, 1982.

Historians try not to audibly gasp in the reading rooms of official archives, but there are times when the written record retains a capacity to shock. In 2012, while working at the Israel State Archives in Jerusalem, I came across highly classified material from Israel’s 1982 War in Lebanon that had just been opened to researchers. This access was in line with the thirty-year rule of declassification governing the release of documents in Israel. Sifting through Foreign Ministry files, I stumbled upon the minutes of a September 17 meeting between Israeli and American officials that took place in the midst of the Sabra and Shatila massacre.…  Seguir leyendo »

Demonstrators placed a Palestinian flag on top of a house in the West Bank village of Nabi Saleh during clashes with Israeli security forces in January.CreditCreditAbbas Momani/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

In the seven decades of its independence, Israel has developed a unique model of statehood. This model can be understood in various ways, and these have evolved over the years, but any description of it always comes back to two terms: Jewish and democratic.

There is no consensus on what it means for a state to be a “Jewish state,” partly because only one state has ever made such a claim. At the same time, there is no practical consensus on what it means for a state to be “democratic”: Many have put the word — knowing it false — in their official names.…  Seguir leyendo »

Can Ultimate Frisbee Save the World

They’d gathered for supper one night in July, at the summer camp at the Kfar Silver school, in Ashkelon, Israel. For the last couple of weeks this group of kids — some from Israel, some from Palestine — had been trying to learn something about conflict resolution, by playing Ultimate Frisbee. Some of them had become friends.

That was when the air raid siren went off.

The rockets came from Gaza, part of the ongoing clash between Hamas and the Israel Defense Forces. The missiles didn’t land in Ashkelon. But they did score a direct hit on the hopes of some of the people who had looked to the camp as an oasis of peace.…  Seguir leyendo »

A Jéricho, en Cisjordanie, en 2012. La clé symbolise le droit au retour des Palestiniens. Photo Valentine Vermeil

Quelle est, à mes yeux, la motivation de la récente loi de l’Etat-nation mettant l’accent sur le caractère juif de l’Etat d’Israël et instaurant l’hébreu comme langue officielle unique, tout en confirmant de nouveau la singularité et l’exclusivité des localités juives déjà établies et à construire ? Pourquoi fallait-il provoquer la colère du camp progressiste qui persiste en Israël, non seulement parmi les membres de l’opposition au Parlement qui se sont élevés énergiquement contre cette nouvelle loi bizarre, mais aussi celle de nombreux universitaires qui la considèrent comme une loi nationaliste menant Israël à un apartheid flagrant, non seulement dans les Territoires palestiniens de Cisjordanie mais au sein même d’Israël ?…  Seguir leyendo »

On July 19, after years of contentious debate, Israel’s Knesset approved a new Basic Law defining the State of Israel unequivocally as “the national home of the Jewish People.” In the weeks since its passage, this “nation-state law” has been hailed by its supporters as a major historical breakthrough, by Israel’s secular left and Arab minority as a tragedy, and by some scholars as a largely symbolic and inconsequential action.

Much of the public debate over the law hinges on how it will affect the delicate balance Israel has long straddled as a Jewish and democratic state, and whether its uncertain application will firmly alter this balance at the expense of political and social equality.…  Seguir leyendo »

Qu’on le veuille ou non, Benyamin Nétanyahou aura marqué de son empreinte l’histoire d’Israël d’une façon décisive. L’homme n’attire pas la sympathie. Même en Israël, sa popularité est incertaine. Mais il dégage une impression de puissance qui force l’admiration.

En face de lui, les Palestiniens sont défaits, entre le régime vieillissant et corrompu de Mahmoud Abbas et la violence sans stratégie du Hamas.

Quant au monde arabe, il détourne son regard et laisse faire. Il a d’autres soucis, en Syrie, en Irak, au Yémen, en Libye, mais surtout avec l’Iran qui avance ses pions de façon menaçante.

Benyamin Nétanyahou peut donc faire son marché sans être dérangé et profiter tout à loisir de la présence de Donald Trump à la Maison Blanche.…  Seguir leyendo »

Two weeks ago, after Palestinian gunmen killed an Israeli soldier, Israel launched one of the fiercest aerial assaults on Gaza since the 2014 war. The hostilities followed months of tension, including Palestinian rocket fire against Israeli communities and waves of Israeli airstrikes on Hamas positions in Gaza. After three wars in the past 10 years, many believe a fourth war between Israel and Hamas looms. With the peace process at an impasse, the conflict seems intractable.

But new research suggests a possible way forward. In a new working paper, Saumitra Jha of Stanford’s Graduate School of Business and Moses Shayo of Hebrew University found that giving Israelis a short, intensive opportunity to trade stocks made them much more willing to negotiate with the Palestinians.…  Seguir leyendo »

Comment comprendre la loi de l’Etat-nation ? Pourquoi maintenant ? Le projet a émergé en 2011, porté par Avi Dichter, un député du parti Kadima qui a fini par rejoindre le Likoud. Il définit l’Etat d’Israël comme le « foyer national du peuple juif qui réalise son aspiration à l’autodétermination conformément à son patrimoine culturel et historique ». Ce projet, maintes fois retouché, n’est pas anodin. Il donnait priorité à la dimension juive de l’Etat au détriment de sa dimension démocratique. Il permettait notamment aux habitants de localités juives situées dans des zones mixtes, juives et arabes, comme la Galilée, de récuser des candidats à l’acquisition d’un droit de résidence s’ils n’étaient pas juifs.…  Seguir leyendo »

En dépit du fait que nous vivons ici depuis des siècles, Israël a, depuis sa fondation, en 1948, tenté de faire en sorte que ses citoyens palestiniens, les survivants de la Nakba, se sentent comme des étrangers dans leur propre patrie. Alors que les Israéliens instauraient un système de discrimination institutionnelle contre les citoyens non juifs, ils ont veillé à préserver les apparences en répétant qu’Israël était « la seule démocratie du Moyen-Orient ».

Mais, en réalité, Israël est une démocratie pour les Juifs, et un pays juif pour les Arabes. C’est une théocratie qui a bâti un Etat comportant deux systèmes séparés : un pour la population privilégiée, les Juifs, et un pour les citoyens palestiniens arabes de seconde classe.…  Seguir leyendo »