Indigenismo

‘There is much to be done and the assembly and its role will evolve over time. But it’s the Aboriginal people of Victoria who will give the assembly its strength and legitimacy.’ Photograph: James Ross/AAP

Hope can be in short supply in Australia’s Indigenous communities sometimes. Trust too.

But Aboriginal communities across Victoria are finding hope and putting their trust in themselves to get the treaty process right.

Despite hundreds of years of broken promises, exploitation and the threat of annihilation, Aboriginal Victorians are getting behind the First Peoples’ Assembly election under way around the state. It’s another step in a journey that should see treaties signed between the Victorian government and Aboriginal clans and groups within years.

It’s not been a quick process though. Even if you exclude the more than 200 years before it, the advancing the treaty process with Aboriginal Victorians bill was passed in June 2018, but the work has been ongoing since 2016.…  Seguir leyendo »

Un joven indígena se pinta la cara para participar en una protesta de tres días en Brasilia, Brasil, contra las nuevas políticas del presidente Jair Bolsonaro, en abril de 2019. (Eraldo Peres)

Los pueblos indígenas en América Latina hemos estado en una lucha constante por nuestros derechos. Desde 1923 pedimos su reivindicación ante la Sociedad de Naciones. Posteriormente, y también por nuestro empuje, en 1957 fue aprobado el Convenio 107 sobre Poblaciones Indígenas y Tribales por parte de la Organización Inter­nacional del Trabajo (OIT).

Entre 1988 y 1992, en toda América Latina, creció un movimiento sin precedentes. En medio de obstáculos políticos e ideológicos, y junto a grandes líderes indígenas del continente, llevamos adelante un momento histórico: la campaña por los 500 años de Resistencia Indígena, Negra y Popular.

Logramos que en 1989 la OIT adoptara el Convenio 169, que de manera formal ampara los derechos de los pueblos indígenas y tribales, y les da un marco jurídico internacional para su lucha y reivindicación.…  Seguir leyendo »

A man hired by loggers takes a break next to his chainsaw in Brazil's Jamanxim National Forest in 2013. (Nacho Doce/Reuters)

Night had already fallen. A small group of sugar cane farmers and their families were resting in a makeshift tent when gunfire erupted. Dozens of men started shooting at the impromptu camp on the island of Negros in the Philippines, the latest salvo in a protracted land dispute. Seven adults and two children were killed.

This massacre in my home country late last year is just one example of the violence inflicted around the world on people defending their land and the environment.

In 2018, at least three people were killed on average every week trying to protect their lands and livelihoods from destructive industries such as mining, logging and agribusiness.…  Seguir leyendo »

The National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls found that an ongoing genocide of Indigenous peoples constitutes a root cause of the violence that is currently being perpetrated against Indigenous women and girls. Genocide is a centerpiece of the National Inquiry’s report, which argues that colonial violence is ongoing, not just a legacy of the past. Its 231 Calls for Justice reflect the legal obligation to stop genocide through a range of policy and process changes.

Numbers are difficult to ascertain, as they keep growing, but nearly two decades of studies and reports in Canada have uncovered more than 1,200 names of Indigenous women who are known to have been killed or who have simply disappeared.…  Seguir leyendo »

Así como España sufrió por décadas con ETA, y más recientemente con el asunto catalán, en el otro extremo del mundo, Chile sufre con un problema interno complejo y preocupante que se arrastra por décadas. Aunque el crecimiento económico se ha atenuado, esperándose un aumento del PIB para 2019 de un 3 por ciento, Chile continúa liderando las estadísticas de desarrollo regional. Sin embargo, el incubado conflicto mapuche impide llevar tranquilidad y atraer más inversiones a la región de la Araucanía, territorio de 32.000 kilómetros cuadrados y una población actual de un millón de habitantes, controlado hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XIX por el pueblo mapuche.…  Seguir leyendo »

Canada’s long-awaited report on missing and murdered indigenous women and girls (MMIWG) was released last week. Its central finding, that Canada is engaged in a “deliberate race, identity and gender-based genocide,” has received cool reception from press and politician alike.

Reporters were initially quick to credulously repeat the study’s accusation, but more skeptical coverage now dominates, and editorial pages are filled with dissent. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau initially sought to avoid stating whether he believed the genocide charge was true, only to finally concede, with lawyerly carefulness, that “we accept their findings, including that what happened amounts to genocide” — though the report was speaking in the present tense.…  Seguir leyendo »

A woman holds an eagle feather during the closing ceremony of the National Inquiry Into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls in Gatineau, Quebec, on June 3. (Chris Wattie/Reuters)

When I was in university in 2006, I would go for lunch with a friend named Casey after class. We would sit and discuss politics, books, lectures and so on. I should mention that Casey was a white woman raised in Toronto with very little experience with indigenous peoples, whereas I was (am) an indigenous woman who has lived on both sides of the border arbitrarily separating my peoples’ territory between the United States and Canada.

Casey had no idea about residential schools, the state- and church-run institutions where Canada forcefully held thousands of indigenous children, away from their families, and subjected them to all manner of abuse and neglect in the name of an “education” meant to “kill the Indian” to “save the man.” I don’t blame her; I didn’t know either, despite my grandmother’s siblings being forced to attend the Mohawk Institute, the residential school closest to Six Nations, a handful of decades before.…  Seguir leyendo »

This week, family members of missing and murdered Indigenous women, girls and Two-Spirit people, survivors of violence, community activists and Indigenous leaders gathered in Ottawa for the release of “Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.” They were there to acknowledge the inquiry’s work in a collective ceremony to honor the lives of those who have experienced violence. It was an demonstration of the love that exists within Indigenous communities for Indigenous women, girls and Two-Spirit people — and a recognition of the overwhelming levels of violence they have had to endure for generations.…  Seguir leyendo »

The Indian Law That Helps Build Walls

The first two years of the Trump administration have brought us horror story after horror story about our government: children separated from their families, men and women detained without due process, communities punished because of their faith. These horrors may seem new, but in fact these abuses — and in particular the law that authorizes them — have been part of our constitutional order since the founding of this country.

In many ways, America is just beginning to reckon with slavery and Jim Crow segregation. But at least we have reformed the laws that allowed these abuses. We have overruled the Dred Scott and Plessy v.…  Seguir leyendo »

Raoni Metuktire, chef du peuple Kayapo en Amazonie brésilienne, initiateur de l’Alliance des gardiens de Mère Nature. UESLEI MARCELINO / REUTERS

Nous, gardiens et enfants de la Terre Mère, peuples indigènes et alliés, nos prophéties, notre sagesse et nos savoirs nous ont permis de constater que la vie sur la Terre Mère est en danger et que l’heure d’une grande transformation est arrivée.

Les peuples indigènes ont toujours pris soin de la Terre Mère et de l’humanité. Nous représentons 370 millions de personnes dans le monde, répartis sur 22 % de la planète et couvrant 80 % de la biodiversité mondiale.

Nous appelons l’humanité à prendre des mesures pour protéger le caractère sacré de l’eau, de l’air, de la terre, du feu, du cycle de la vie et de tous les êtres humains, végétaux et animaliers.…  Seguir leyendo »

Indigenismo y memoria

Colón no fue famoso en su tiempo. Su empeño en abrir un camino más corto a las riquezas de oriente (oro y especias) lo llevo a descubrir, por pura casualidad, el continente americano, pero después cayó en desgracia y su nombre se diluyó en el tropel de exploradores y conquistadores que lo siguieron.

La fama actual del descubridor se debe a los emigrantes italianos que en el siglo XIX y principios del XX arribaban a Estados Unidos huyendo de la miseria. Ellos lo encumbraron como su gran precursor para compensar la humillación de sentirse ciudadanos de segunda en la nueva patria que los acogía con menosprecio anglosajón (después de estabularlos para la obligatoria cuarentena en la isla de Ellis).…  Seguir leyendo »

France Libertés et le peuple autochtone Krenak du Brésil lancent une campagne internationale, « Justice for Krenak », pour dénoncer la violation des droits de ce peuple et la destruction de son mode de vie par la multinationale Samarco, en 2015. Si nous avons accepté de parrainer cette campagne, c’est que nos deux séjours en Amazonie pour le tournage de la série Guyane nous ont appris beaucoup sur les conséquences des activités minières, légales ou illégales.

Contrairement à ce qu’affirment certaines entreprises, il n’existe pas de procédé d’extraction qui préserve l’écosystème et maintienne des conditions d’existence acceptables pour les populations voisines.…  Seguir leyendo »

Indios de América del Norte

La Universidad de Stanford ha decidido retirar el nombre de todo un recinto del campus dedicado a Junípero Serra, un símbolo más de la marea indigenista que está arrollando los vestigios de la herencia española en Estados Unidos. Nada más injusto y erróneo, y para probarlo retrocedamos dos siglos y medio, cuando a las manos del preclaro Rey Carlos III llegó un despacho secreto que informaba que los rusos pretendían ocupar California, entonces tierra de nadie. De inmediato organizó el Rey la llamada Santa Expedición, con el doble objetivo de frenar a Rusia y de evangelizar a los indios californianos, confiando a un catalán, Gaspar de Portolá, la jefatura de la expedición, y al franciscano Junípero Serra, la dirección religiosa.…  Seguir leyendo »

A scene from the launch party of the Ilê Omolu Oxum CD in 2005 in front of the National Museum of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro. (Antonio Carlos de Souza Lima)

This week the National Museum of Brazil caught fire and burned to the ground.

The museum was a scientific institution, that contained artifacts and specimens representing the social and biological diversity of Brazil and the world. Many of these items were unique: Extremely rare Egyptian mummies; some of the oldest human remains of the Americas; cultural collections of indigenous peoples (both from today and from pre-conquest times); African treasures, such as the throne of King Adandozan of Dahome, and rare ivory sculptures. There were also collections of coral, fish, mammals, insects, birds, reptiles and plants. Many of these species, such as the blue Spix Macaw (featured in Disney’s animated film “Rio”), are now extinct.…  Seguir leyendo »

I did an official 10-day visit from May 1-10 to Guatemala as part of my tasks as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples. In a span of five days, while I was there and after I left, Luis Marroquin, Jose Can Xol and Mateo Chamán Paau were killed. They were killed in their fight for their rights to continue owning the lands they live in and live from. All of them are Q’eqchi’ Maya.

Marroquin, a member of the national directorate and coordinator of the eastern region of the Comité de Desarrollo Campesino (CODECA), was killed in the town of San Luis Jilotepeque, Jalapa, on May 9.…  Seguir leyendo »

Dans les prochaines semaines, le président de la Colombie Juan Manuel Santos pourrait concrétiser l’une de ses plus anciennes ambitions : que son pays soit admis comme Etat membre au sein de l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE). Le 22 mars, le Comité des affaires du travail et sociales de l’OCDE débattra de la question, car cette prestigieuse organisation internationale, qui regroupe principalement des pays à revenu élevé, promeut des politiques visant à améliorer le bien-être des populations mondiales sur les plans économique et social.

La Colombie est un pays marqué par de profondes inégalités, comme j’ai pu le constater en me rendant sur place à maintes reprises pour Human Rights Watch.…  Seguir leyendo »

Brazil is home to the largest number of uncontacted indigenous communities of any country in the world. Hidden deep in primeval Amazon forests, these groups represent the final frontier of a seemingly inexorable conquest that began with the landing of Portuguese and Spanish navigators on South America’s shores at the start of the 16th century.

The history of Brazil’s Amazon region, as elsewhere in the Americas, abounds with tales of mass death and brutality perpetrated against its native inhabitants. Entire tribes disappeared, many without a trace. Few of these atrocities figured in official accounts; rarely was anyone brought to justice.

But 30 years ago, Brazil took an extraordinary step toward halting the march of this dismal history.…  Seguir leyendo »

Nothing prepares you for your first sight of Uluru. Amid the vastness of Australia’s arid red center, there is something wondrous about this monumental slab of sandstone rising dramatically out of a flattened landscape. It is not difficult to see why Indigenous Australians saw it as a sacred place.

Uluru is not just a place of wonder and reverence. It has become, too, a political and historical battleground, a place through which Australia has tried to grapple with its relationship with Indigenous Australians.

It was the Anangu, the original inhabitants of the region, who gave Uluru its name. For more than a century, though, it was known to Australians of European descent as Ayers Rock, named after a 19th-century Anglo-Australian colonial administrator.…  Seguir leyendo »

El 30 de abril, un grupo de rancheros armados con rifles y machetes atacó un asentamiento de cerca de 400 familias de la tribu gamela, en el estado de Maranhão, en el noreste de Brasil. De acuerdo con el Consejo Indigenista Misionero, un grupo de activistas, veintidós indígenas resultaron heridos, entre ellos tres niños. A muchos les dispararon por la espalda o les cortaron las muñecas.

Poco después del ataque, el Ministerio de Justicia anunció en su página web que investigaría “el incidente entre pequeños campesinos y presuntas personas indígenas” (tras unos cuantos minutos se eliminó la palabra “presuntas”).

Esto era de esperarse.…  Seguir leyendo »

«Nosotros somos indios alzados, rebeldes, nadie nos va a callar, no nos vamos a callar». Así habló hace una década el por entonces presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez (1954-2013), tras el célebre incidente en el que terció Juan Carlos I, pronunciando su famoso «¿Por qué no te callas?», mientras el Comandante Eterno tildaba de fascista a Aznar en presencia del presidente Zapatero.

La reivindicación indigenista de Chávez, vertida en una universidad chilena tras la clausura de la XVII Cumbre Iberoamericana celebrada en Chile, trataba de marcar distancias con el Rey español. El silencio que se produjo tras el mandato regio transmitió una idea de sumisión inaceptable en el contexto ideológico del Cono Sur.…  Seguir leyendo »