Irlanda

México tiene tanto la suerte como el infortunio de hacer frontera con EE UU. En Irlanda nos sucede lo mismo. No importa cuánto tratemos de definirnos como un país individual y separado, nos resulta imposible escapar de la influencia de los ingleses. Esto se siente profundamente entre nuestra clase política que intenta desesperadamente demostrar cómo podemos gestionar nuestro propio país sin la influencia de nuestros vecinos.

Los ingleses (y digo inglés deliberadamente, ya que son ellos quienes dirigen el Reino Unido) han abandonado la Unión Europea. El Brexit es ahora un hecho, el Brexit ha sucedido. Se han separado, y su regreso es tan difícil como incierto.…  Seguir leyendo »

Irlanda y la legitimación del crimen

«No es solo por el pasado, sino también por el presente». Al inaugurarse el parlamento irlandés Micheál Martin explicaba así los motivos por los que el partido que lidera, Fianna Fáil, rechaza la entrada del Sinn Féin en el gobierno. Fianna Fáil es el partido con más escaños tras las recientes elecciones en Irlanda, seguido del Sinn Féin, formación que todavía hoy está controlada por la cúpula de un grupo terrorista, el IRA. Lo han confirmado públicamente tanto mandos de la policía de Irlanda del Norte como de la República de Irlanda. En ese contexto Micheál Martin denunció el populismo de izquierda radical del Sinn Féin, que carece de los estándares democráticos del resto de formaciones políticas irlandesas y que ha sido el más votado por el electorado joven.…  Seguir leyendo »

On Saturday, the Republic of Ireland held a general election. Sinn Fein won more votes than any other party, with 24.5 percent of the “first preference” vote, although another party, Fianna Fail, won one more seat. This is an enormous change in Irish politics.

While the Republic of Ireland is separate from Northern Ireland, many people outside of Ireland and the United Kingdom know Sinn Fein primarily as the party historically connected to the Irish Republican Army (IRA), a terrorist organization that put down its weapons as part of the Good Friday Agreement that brought peace to Northern Ireland. However, it is the only significant party that is organized in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (which is unsurprising, since its main political ambition is to reunify Ireland).…  Seguir leyendo »

The Irish political system may be about to undergo a major upheaval. Sinn Fein, a party that has traditionally been associated with the Irish Republican Army (IRA), has been doing increasingly well in the polls. Now, a new Irish Times poll finds that it is leading, with 25 percent of likely voters saying that they intend to vote for Sinn Fein. Fianna Fail is in second place with 23 percent, while Fine Gael, which is in government with the support of some independents (and the outside support of Fianna Fail, its historical rival) is third at 20 percent. This poll is likely to shock the Irish political system.…  Seguir leyendo »

Britain’s election results seem to point in two very different directions. The headline result is that Boris Johnson’s Conservative Party has won a smashing victory against Jeremy Corbyn’s Labour Party, clearing the way for Britain’s exit from the European Union. This would seem like good news for British nationalists, who have treated the E.U. as an enemy for decades.

Yet this victory may weaken the political fabric of the United Kingdom. Scottish nationalists did extraordinarily well, too, while for the first time, more nationalist members of Parliament (who want a united Ireland) have been elected in Northern Ireland than unionist MPs (who want the union with Great Britain to continue).…  Seguir leyendo »

Thomas Dworzak/Magnum Photos Murals in Belfast, Northern Ireland, 2018

The Irish have long been said to have a way with words—and there has been no shortage of them expended in the argument over the possibility of a Brexit-induced reinstatement of a border partitioning the island of Ireland. Since the 2016 referendum, numerous books have been published on the subject; thousands of newspaper articles have been written; famous Irish actors have taken to reciting poems to plea on the border’s behalf; and the border itself has a popular Twitter account, providing daily commentary—sometimes wry, sometimes raging—on the debate about its future.

More than three years into the Brexit mess, it would seem that our war of words may have finally gotten through to the British prime minister.…  Seguir leyendo »

La controversia a propósito de la frontera irlandesa nos recuerda que la soberanía ha estado en el centro del callejón sin salida del Brexit desde el principio. Una de las tareas fundamentales de un Estado soberano es garantizar la seguridad nacional mediante el control de fronteras. El Acuerdo de Viernes Santo, que acabó con décadas de brutal violencia política en Irlanda del Norte entre católicos republicanos y protestantes unionistas, suprimió la frontera entre el norte y el sur. La decisión fue la expresión de la soberanía de la República de Irlanda y del Reino Unido.

El de Viernes Santo fue también un acuerdo sobre la identidad nacional, un corolario de la soberanía.…  Seguir leyendo »

A woman and child pass a British soldier in the republican New Lodge district of Belfast in 1978. Photograph: Alex Bowie/Getty Images

One of the disconcerting things about Brexit is its capacity constantly to rewrite the script of political dysfunction. The latest government proposals won’t work. They do represent a significant concession, but create an incoherent muddle leading to a bizarre outcome.

Northern Ireland would remain part of Europe’s single market but Britain would leave it. There would be regulatory checks down the Irish Sea but not at the Irish border. There would however be customs checks, so the border would not be open as now. And Northern Ireland’s membership of the single market could be unilaterally revoked by its assembly, which is not presently able to constitute itself, and so the whole plan is subject to the notorious vagaries of Northern Irish politics.…  Seguir leyendo »

‘Ireland’s modern dismay is at rampant inequality.’ Graffiti by the Irish artist ADW on construction hoardings behind the Bernard Shaw pub in Dublin, September 2019. Photograph: Brian Lawless/PA

There’s a reason that “Was it for this?” remains one of WB Yeats’s most recited fragments of poetry in Ireland. The line comes from Yeats’s September 1913, which poured scorn on how the greed and hypocrisies of the business class had replaced the romanticism of previous Irish generations.

Ireland’s modern dismay, however, is at rampant and growing inequality, and the way in which its cities and cultural spaces are being hollowed out by speculation, gentrification, poor or absent planning and squandered opportunities.

After five years of what could justifiably be called social revolution in Ireland, the cliche is that the country responded uniquely to the crippling austerity that followed the 2008 financial crash, not with anti-immigrant populism but with progressive politics.…  Seguir leyendo »

Leo Varadkar, Ireland’s prime minister, met with Boris Johnson, his British counterpart, in Dublin in September.CreditCreditPhil Noble/Reuters

When Boris Johnson visited Ireland’s prime minister, Leo Varadkar, in Dublin last month as part of a last-minute scramble to reach some sort of Brexit deal, the two leaders began their day with a media briefing on the steps of one of Dublin’s grandest buildings. In the Edwardian Baroque style, it was built by the British authorities while the Irish were intensifying their struggle for independence. “Fortuitously,” the Heritage Ireland website snarkily notes, “the complex was completed in 1922 and was available immediately to be occupied by the new Irish Free State government.” Rarely has the word “fortuitously” elided so much.…  Seguir leyendo »

Police Service of Northern Ireland officers look at a burnt car in the Ardoyne area of north Belfast in 2002, after Catholic and Protestant rioters clashed with police overnight. (Peter Morrison/AP)

Fifty years ago this month, the British government sent troops to Northern Ireland to impose control as relations broke down between Protestants and Catholics. The ensuing violence, known as “the Troubles,” lasted 33 years and led to over 3,000 deaths, including 1,617 in Belfast alone. Why did Northern Ireland — a jurisdiction of an advanced industrial nation — suffer such sustained violence? In new research, we examine one important factor. Catholics and Protestants lived side by side, but they had very few social or economic ties across the communities. This meant geographic proximity bred violence instead of mutual tolerance.

The Troubles were sparked by tit-for-tat violence

To understand the Northern Ireland conflict, you need to know a little history.…  Seguir leyendo »

During the last couple weeks, strange things have been happening in Ireland. A mysterious organization called the Irish Tax Agency launched a Facebook campaign to advertise how Irish tax authorities gave preferential treatment to international property investors. The Sunday Business Post revealed Ireland’s economic development agency, the IDA, was paying for changes to Wikipedia pages about itself and its chief executive. It had gotten caught up in an “edit war” with a Wikipedia user who kept on making edits “linking Ireland and its stakeholders to negative stories, particularly on economics, taxation and Brexit.”

For a long time, Ireland has used taxes to aggressively attract incoming investment.…  Seguir leyendo »

Lecciones del Acuerdo de Viernes Santo

Hace 21 años que firmamos el Acuerdo de Viernes Santo, junto con dirigentes y activistas de los dos países que gobernábamos, que tanto se habían esforzado para alcanzar la paz. Fue un momento trascendental. Pero aquel histórico 10 de abril de 1998 no fue solo el fin de un proceso, sino el comienzo de otro. La gente de Irlanda del Norte y la República de Irlanda han seguido forjando el acuerdo cada día. Una paz duradera no se construye con unas cuantas firmas sobre el papel, sino con las acciones y relaciones diarias de las personas, las empresas, la sociedad, los políticos y los Gobiernos.…  Seguir leyendo »

Street fighting against British soldiers in 1971 in Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Credit Bruno Barbey/Magnum Photos

Two weeks ago I was on the outskirts of Derry, a town in Northern Ireland, just a few yards away from the border where Britain ends and the Republic of Ireland begins. Behind a garden wall, a wiry, older man was eager to vent.

“This is Ireland! The English have no business here,” he exclaimed. He pointed down the road toward a small stone bridge. The checkpoint there vanished two decades ago, he said. Should the British try to erect a new guard house, he went on, “we will burn it down.”

Come on, I cajoled him, incredulously. What will really happen if, after Britain leaves the European Union, customs officers or the police might be stationed at what will then be a new border?…  Seguir leyendo »

Crosses for Irish republicans who died in the hunger strike at the Maze prison in Belfast in 1981 are part of a memorial in County Armagh. Rob Stothard for The New York Times.

My friend Sean, like a lot of people in Ireland, tells a good story. He used to work for the National Roads Authority; they couldn’t call it the Irish Roads Authority, he liked to joke, because the abbreviation “I.R.A.” was already taken.

In 2010, Sean organized an event to celebrate the completion of a highway linking Dublin to Belfast, in Northern Ireland. You could now commute between the two capital cities, which had once seemed worlds apart, in under two hours. One of the grandees invited to celebrate on a stretch of road outside Newry in the north was Martin McGuinness, the former Irish Republican Army gunman who, like a number of ex-paramilitaries, had reinvented himself as a politician and helped engineer the Good Friday Agreement, which brought an end to the three-decade conflict known as the Troubles in 1998.…  Seguir leyendo »

El punto crucial del acuerdo de retirada de Reino Unido de la UE (y también el que ha causado mayor rechazo en el seno del partido conservador británico) es el denominado backstop;el mecanismo que impide que el mantenimiento de la supresión de controles fronterizos, acordado de forma transitoria, pueda ser derogado de forma unilateral por Reino Unido si no hay una alternativa acordada adecuada a la ausencia de los mismos (alternativa que ni el Gobierno británico ni nadie ha conseguido identificar de manera creíble). Mantener la libertad de circulación mediante la Zona Común de Viaje (Common Travel Area, CTA) mencionada en el artículo 5 del acuerdo de retirada es bueno para la UE, pero, sobre todo, es la respuesta a la demanda irrenunciable de la que el Gobierno irlandés ha hecho bandera.…  Seguir leyendo »

Members of the Sinn Fein party at the First Dail Eireann, Ireland’s first self-governing assembly.CreditCreditHulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis, via Getty Images

In 1916, Irish nationalists sparked the Easter Rising, a bloody revolt against the British, who had controlled Ireland for some 700 years. They failed in their immediate goal — and many of them were executed or jailed in retribution — but the violence left behind a wave of separatist sentiment across the island. Three years later, with the ink from the armistice ending World War I still drying and President Woodrow Wilson calling for “political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike,” the surviving nationalists realized they had a second chance. On Jan. 21, 1919, they declared independence.…  Seguir leyendo »

A pedestrian walked last year past a billboard in west Belfast erected by Sinn Féin, calling for a special status for northern Ireland with respect to Brexit. (Paul Faith/AFP/Getty Images)

If anyone needs tidings of comfort and joy this holiday season, it is the long-suffering people of Northern Ireland. The unique challenges posed by the Irish border vexed more than 18 months of Brexit negotiations and could still scupper a deal. As the end game nears, the peace process is not a price worth paying.

When Ireland gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1921, the six northern counties comprising Northern Ireland remained part of the union. Its status has remained contested — with more than 3,600 killed during decades of violence known as the Troubles — between the Protestant and predominantly unionist community, and the Catholic and largely nationalist one.…  Seguir leyendo »

Last month, some video footage went viral in Ireland of a group of English men verbally abusing young women at a Dublin housing crisis protest. The men, it turned out, were part of a bachelor party who had come from Bristol and seemed to be dressed intentionally to look like a cartoon of landed gentry, in tweeds and the loudly colored trousers widely beloved by braying men of a certain kind.

It would have been a strange incident in any case, these English men who look like relics of the landlord class shouting at young Irish people rendered desperate because of skyrocketing rents, but it was to become more absurd still.…  Seguir leyendo »

Protesters against clerical sexual child abuse in Ireland, at a rally in Dublin on Sunday.CreditCreditPaulo Nunes dos Santos for The New York Times

On Sunday, while the faithful gathered for mass with Pope Francis in Dublin’s Phoenix Park, a large group gathered in the city’s Garden of Remembrance at an event called Stand for Truth. The railings had been hung with dozens of tiny pairs of baby shoes.

Colm O’Gorman, who runs the Irish office of Amnesty International, organized the event. He told the crowd that he had been 13 years old, and deeply religious, when Pope John Paul II visited in 1979 — the last time a pope visited Ireland. “I was in a liturgical group,” he said. “The church was in every part of my life.…  Seguir leyendo »