Responsabilidad de Proteger (R2P)

A Syrian Arab Red Crescent member prepares a vaccine in the rebel-held town of Douma, on the eastern edges of the Syrian capital Damascus, 3 March 2016. Photo: Abd Doumany/AFP/Getty Images.

The year 2019 marks both the 70th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions and the 20th anniversary of UN Security Council resolution 1265, the first to address the protection of civilians in armed conflict. Upon these foundations, and in response to the mass atrocities witnessed at the close of the 20th century, in 2005 the ‘responsibility to protect’ (R2P)[1] was codified by all UN member states to prevent such horrors from occurring in the future.

R2P is defined by three pillars which emphasize, first, the primary responsibility of the state to ensure the safety and security of its civilians. The second pillar stresses the responsibility of the international community to support states in this aim.…  Seguir leyendo »

U.N. peacekeepers from Rwanda serve at a U.N. base in Malakal, South Sudan, in 2016. (Jane Hahn for The Washington Post)

Over the past 20 years, U.N. peacekeeping deployments have increased by more than 600 percent. Currently, the United Nations manages 14 peacekeeping operations worldwide, staffed by more than 95,000 military personnel, police, civilians and volunteers.

For almost all of these, a common mandate is to protect civilians — which is important not just in immediately saving lives, but also in sustaining peace over the long run. Recent academic research has focused on how well peacekeepers do at reducing conflicts’ virulence and spread.

But do armed peacekeepers actually protect civilians from harm? That’s been debated lately. A recent report, delivered to U.N.…  Seguir leyendo »

Plus grande catastrophe humanitaire du XXIe siècle, la guerre en Syrie est un échec collectif de notre « responsabilité de protéger » (R2P). Apparue en 2001, unanimement adoptée par l’Assemblée générale des nations unies en 2005, la R2P est une doctrine par laquelle les Etats s’engagent à protéger les populations des atrocités de masse (génocide, crimes contre l’humanité, nettoyage ethnique, crimes de guerre). Elle s’organise autour d’une double norme : la responsabilité principale des Etats de protéger leurs populations, qui est une obligation juridique, et la responsabilité subsidiaire de la communauté internationale de le faire en cas de défaillance, qui est un appel moral et politique.…  Seguir leyendo »

Si bien es un hecho que la UE y sus Estados miembros se hallan comprometidos con los derechos humanos, las actuales políticas no son quizá las más adecuadas. Tienen carencias importantes para el día de hoy y no son suficientes para la Europa del mañana. Ante los desafíos surgidos en 2016 y 2017, migraciones, Brexit y ascenso al poder de Donald Trump incluidos, las instituciones y gobiernos europeos (especialmente algunos de estos) han dado marcha atrás en lo que a los valores esenciales se refiere.

Los años 70 a 90 protagonizaron el creciente interés de las instituciones europeas por los derechos humanos, y el Parlamento asumió un papel relevante.…  Seguir leyendo »

The recent “In Theory” series on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) highlighted that arguments for R2P’s efficacy are primarily based on its having prompted a proliferation of supportive statements rather than effective action and tangible results. R2P has undoubtedly garnered widespread state support, but there is a glaring disconnect between this rhetorical affirmation and the egregious human suffering that still characterizes contemporary international politics.

On what basis can we say that R2P is a “huge breakthrough,” as Gareth Evans asserted? Statistical evidence certainly doesn’t support these claims; the Uppsala Conflict Data Program’s extensive quantitative study released in 2015 noted starkly, “The last five years have seen a dramatic increase in organized violence.”  Likewise, in the last year myriad reports — from organizations such as Amnesty International, the International Crisis Group, UNHCR, the Red Cross and Human Rights Watch — have detailed an increase in state-sponsored violence and repression, and a pronounced lack of will among the “international community” to respond to these crises.…  Seguir leyendo »