South Sudan’s long-running peace process has reached another milestone. On 12 September, President Salva Kiir and opposition leaders, including Riek Machar, signed a power-sharing deal promising an end to the five-year conflict that is estimated to have claimed nearly 400,000 lives and displaced one-third of the population.
Under the deal, which is a ‘revitalized’ version of a previous deal reached in 2015, Machar will be reinstated as first vice president with a reconstituted transitional government to be established in May 2019. News of the agreement was greeted with cautious optimism by a population who are desperate for peace, and huge crowds turned out for the government’s peace celebrations on 31 October.… Seguir leyendo »
In 2011, Sudan and South Sudan sought outside help to prevent a return to war along what would become their international border. This effort followed a resurgence of violence in border areas: a new insurgency in South Sudan’s Unity State in April; the Sudanese army’s move into Abyei, an oil-rich area claimed by both countries, in May; and renewed fighting in the Sudanese states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile (known as the “Two Areas”) in June. Part of the UN Security Council’s response to their requests for support was its deployment of a peacekeeping mission, the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA).… Seguir leyendo »
En muchos aspectos, Yemen y Sudán del Sur son mundos distintos. Pero pese a las inmensas diferencias de historia, tradición y cultura, los dos países comparten una triste característica: sus pueblos soportan a la vez dos de las crisis más destructivas creadas por el hombre (la guerra y el cambio climático).
Sudán del Sur lleva casi un decenio atrapado en la guerra. Sólo en los últimos cinco años, murieron decenas de miles de personas y casi un cuarto de la población resultó desplazada; muchos se vieron obligados a huir a países vecinos como Kenia, Uganda o Sudán.
Yemen, por su parte, se convirtió en un importante frente de la batalla por la influencia regional que están librando Arabia Saudita (que tiene vínculos con el gobierno de Yemen) e Irán (que apoya a la milicia rebelde hutí).… Seguir leyendo »
South Sudan faces an existential crisis. More than four million people – between a third and half of the population – are displaced from their homes. Nearly eight million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. The economy is in tatters. After almost four years of civil war, conflict has devolved into fighting across multiple fronts.
A new regional peace effort
In an attempt to address the ongoing crisis, the Horn of Africa’s regional organization, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), initiated the High Level Revitalization Forum (HLRF) in June. The forum is intended to revive an effectively defunct 2015 peace accord, the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS), which collapsed following fighting in Juba in July 2016 between government forces and the armed opposition loyal to former First Vice President Riek Machar.… Seguir leyendo »
China’s announcement of plans to vastly expand its first-ever overseas military base in Djibouti follows a dramatic display in July, when two Chinese navy vessels steamed across the Indian Ocean towards the dock. On both counts, Asia’s pre-eminent power declared in no uncertain terms that it will sit on the sidelines no longer. China’s growing naval capacity is being put to use in its deepening involvement in the Horn of Africa’s security. For years, it has been testing, refining and growing its clout in turbulent South Sudan – an indication that its adherence to the long-standing policy of non-interference is becoming less doctrinaire.… Seguir leyendo »
South Sudan is 6. The government has canceled its birthday party. The treasury is empty. Neither the army nor rebels have command and control in a civil war that stumps peace mediators. Three million have fled their homes.
This situation escalated from a shootout in the presidential guard on the night of Dec. 15, 2013. The misunderstanding spread through the army barracks, to the capital, and then the rest of the country.
But the civil war has older roots, in 50 years of Sudanese conflicts. When British colonizers left Sudan in 1956, Khartoum’s carousel of military juntas continued a British policy of mistreating southerners.… Seguir leyendo »
La famine est une mort cruelle. Nous venons tout juste de rentrer du Soudan du Sud et nous avons pu constater à quel point la famine affecte particulièrement les enfants, les femmes et les personnes âgées. La faim affaiblit tellement les gens qu’ils ne sont plus capables de résister à la moindre maladie. Un banal rhume peut s’avérer mortel. C’est ce qui se passe en ce moment au Soudan du Sud.
Dans le centre nord du pays, la région la plus touchée par la famine, des femmes et des enfants aux yeux cernés tentent, tant bien que mal, de faire face aux souffrances liées à la faim.… Seguir leyendo »
The last time the UN declared a famine was in 2011, in Somalia. The last time it faced more than one major famine simultaneously was more than three decades ago. Today we are on the brink of four – in Yemen, Nigeria, Somalia and South Sudan.
The spectre of famine is primarily the result of war, not natural disaster. According to the UN, more than twenty million people, millions of them children, are at risk of starvation. This is happening in man-made crises and under the Security Council’s watch. In some places, the denial of food and other aid is a weapon of war as much as its consequence.… Seguir leyendo »
Les Nations unies ont déclaré officiellement l’état de famine dans certaines régions du Soudan du Sud et il est fort probable que de telles annonces se répètent dans un futur proche.
Près de 20 millions de personnes, réparties entre quatre pays, à savoir le Yémen (14 millions), le Soudan du Sud (5 millions), le Nigeria (5 millions) et la Somalie (3 millions) sont actuellement confrontées à une grave insécurité alimentaire, cela signifie qu’elles sont déjà sous-alimentées et n’ont souvent pas d’autres choix que de vendre leurs actifs pour survivre. Jamais en l’espace de 20 ans, autant de personnes ne se sont retrouvées si près d’une catastrophe humanitaire.… Seguir leyendo »
A man-made famine? That question has been on the lips a lot in recent days after it was declared in South Sudan. The last time this happened in Africa, or anywhere, was in Somalia in 2011.
The classification of a famine as man-made is applied to severe hunger arising from a set of foreseeable, and therefore avoidable, circumstances. According to criteria set down by the United Nations a famine is declared in an area when at least 20% of households are viewed as being exposed to extreme food shortages, 30% are malnourished and deaths from hunger has reached two persons a day for every 10,000.… Seguir leyendo »
Famine used to be one of the world’s most effective killers. A tenth of England’s population died in the Great Famine of 1315. In the mid-17th century starvation wiped out a third of the population of Poland, a tenth of all Scots and a third of all Finns. A million people died in the Irish famine of 1845. Between 108 BC and 1911 there were 1,828 famines in China alone. Every successive century saw a decline in the incidence of famine but 70 million still starved to death during the 20th century. Then, at the start of the 21st century, famine looked to be disappearing.… Seguir leyendo »
Ethiopia’s commitment to peace-making in South Sudan has been critical for regional stability. It has much to gain from continuing this engagement, including a secure border and trade with a stable neighbour. But achieving lasting peace after South Sudan’s two-year-long civil war is a long-term undertaking.
Ethiopia has shown strong leadership and a level of direct involvement in peace efforts in Sudan and South Sudan that few countries can match.
The African Union High Implementation Panel (AUHIP) peace talks on the conflicts are held in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa led the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD, a regional body) peace process on South Sudan and is a guarantor of the August 2015 Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCSS).… Seguir leyendo »
Uganda has a crucial role and interest in supporting South Sudan’s efforts to forge a more inclusive transitional government
Reducing South Sudan’s internal strife would not just benefit the South Sudanese but is also critical for Ugandan interests, including the security of its citizens and border, reducing refugee flows and the protection of its economic investments and trade.
President Museveni and other Ugandan leaders should encourage their South Sudanese counterparts to prioritise political rather than military solutions to ongoing conflicts; support national dialogue to increase the transitional government’s inclusivity; and encourage better relations between Juba and Khartoum over key bilateral issues.… Seguir leyendo »
Sudan and South Sudan’s relationship is of vital importance to resolving conflicts in both countries. Khartoum, and other countries in the region, clearly benefit from a stable South Sudan.
Once-fraught relations between the two countries have improved in recent years, helped by substantive discussions over shared interests, including oil exports, support for armed groups, and border security. Khartoum should now use its influence in Juba to seek better regional cooperation and a peaceful resolution of internal and cross-border conflicts.
A more sophisticated Sudanese approach that ensures southern armed groups are part of a more inclusive, and thereby stable, government in Juba, is in Khartoum’s own best interests.… Seguir leyendo »
If the conflict in Syria tops the list of the world’s worst civil wars today, the one in South Sudan is a close second. Over the past three years, more than three million South Sudanese civilians have been displaced inside the country or have fled abroad because of fighting and atrocities — including more than 340,000 just to Uganda over the past six months.
A special commission of the African Union concluded in October 2015 that war crimes and crimes against humanity had been committed, by the government of South Sudan “pursuant to or in furtherance of a state policy,” and by opposition forces, too.… Seguir leyendo »
Everyone agrees that South Sudan “stands on the brink of an all-out ethnic civil war,” as Yasmin Sooka, of the United Nations Human Rights Council, put it. But there is no consensus on how to move forward.
The debate in the Security Council mirrors an earlier one in the African Union’s five-person Commission of Inquiry set up after mass violence erupted in South Sudan in December 2013. Led by Olusegun Obasanjo, former president of Nigeria, commission members came from the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Union’s office on Women, Peace and Security, and academia. I was one of the two academics.… Seguir leyendo »
The UK has pledged to send a further 100 troops to South Sudan as part of the UN’s peacekeeping mission there, increasing its total contribution to 400. This will likely have little benefit for the South Sudanese caught up in the conflict but may have significant implications for the UK military. Contributing further to what some would consider an already failing mission will make the UK military complicit in that failure − it needs to consider the reputational damage increased deployment of troops may bring and the positive influence it could instead exert on these missions.
The decision by the UN to increase the total number of peacekeeping troops to 17,000 following a recent spike in violence in South Sudan seems to be premised on a flawed idea that more peacekeepers will bring more peace.… Seguir leyendo »
When world leaders meet in New York next week for summit meetings hosted by the UN and the U.S. to tackle the global refugee crisis, they must redouble their efforts to resolve those conflicts driving the global exodus and to prevent new conflicts before the emergency is compounded. Additionally, leaders should commit to resettle at least 10 per cent of the world’s refugees annually, share responsibilities more equitably, increase support for front-line states facing the greatest challenges, and respect fully the rights of refugees.
The number of refugees and internally displaced now stands at more than 65 million, the largest figure ever recorded.… Seguir leyendo »
One year ago, the main warring parties in South Sudan – the government and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army-In Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) signed a peace agreement designed to end South Sudan’s nearly two-year civil war. The government only signed under concerted pressure from regional and international powers; yet despite Juba’s reservations, the agreement stopped the worst of the fighting.
By mid-2016, peace implementation halted and fighting erupted between the government and rebel forces brought into Juba under a contentious post-agreement security deal. Following the brief fighting, the First Vice President and SPLM/A-IO leader, Dr. Riek Machar, left Juba and remained in the bush, waging a limited guerrilla conflict, for over a month.… Seguir leyendo »
Cuando en el año 2009 dejé Juba para trasladarme a Jartum tras varios meses trabajando con Naciones Unidas en lo que iba a ser Sudán del Sur, me hubiera sido imposible imaginar que el sufrimiento inmenso de amigos, compañeros de trabajo y de los alrededor de 12 millones de personas que dejé atrás en las condiciones más vulnerables, no había ni mucho menos terminado, y que el estallido de una nueva guerra civil en 2013 aún provocaría 50.000 muertos y 2,3 millones de desplazados. El forzado acuerdo de paz de agosto de 2015 no logró calmar los ánimos y las fuerzas armadas del SPLA (Sudan People’s Liberation Army), del SPLA-IO (People’s Liberation Army-in Opposition) y las milicias étnicas han venido cometiendo ataques contra civiles (los soldados dinka del SPLA matando a población nuer, y viceversa), abusos sexuales, reclutando niños soldado y atacando bienes y personal de Naciones Unidas y ONG.… Seguir leyendo »