Sur Global

Protesters waving Russian flags and holding a portrait of Russian President Vladimir Putin protest against French President Emmanuel Macron’s visit to the DRC, in Kinshasa on 1 March 2023. Photo by ARSENE MPIANA/AFP via Getty Images.

Russia has been courting the states of the Global South to circumvent Western sanctions and avoid international isolation – with notable success. In February 2024, Moscow hosted the first ‘For the Freedom of Nations’ forum with 400 delegates from 60 countries, aiming to rally the countries of the Global South against ‘Western neo-colonialism’.

The previous year, it hosted both a Russia-Africa summit and a first international parliamentary conference of Latin American countries. Moscow has also actively lobbied for the expansion of BRICS, which it currently chairs, and sent Foreign Minister Lavrov on several tours across the Global South. This week, Russia is hosting its Russia and the Islamic World Kazan forum, expecting more than 11,000 delegates from 79 countries.…  Seguir leyendo »

La Tierra de noche en Europa. Fotografía: Matthias Kulka / Getty Images.

Tema

La Unión Europea (UE) se enfrenta al difícil reto doble de ajustarse y adaptarse a un mundo multipolar más complejo e impredecible y de reconocer el fortalecimiento de la voz, el poder y la representatividad de los Estados africanos, asiáticos y latinoamericanos, denominados con frecuencia el sur global.

Resumen

Los países en desarrollo representan una parte importante de la política y la actividad exterior, comercial y de desarrollo de la UE. Con el paso de los años, el bloque ha forjado una red impresionante de asociaciones con las potencias emergentes que no se limitan al comercio y la ayuda al desarrollo, sino que abarcan el cambio climático, la seguridad, el mundo cibernético, la conectividad y la migración.…  Seguir leyendo »

South African President Cyril Ramaphosa and Chinese President Xi Jinping at a summit in Johannesburg, August 2023. Alet Pretorius / Reuters

Not so long ago, policymakers in Washington and other Western capitals gave little apparent thought to the possibility that the rest of the world might hold opinions distinct from their own. There were some exceptions: governments that the West deemed “good partners”—in other words, those willing to advance U.S. and Western security or economic interests—continued to benefit from Western support even if they did not govern themselves in accordance with Western values. But after the Cold War ended, most Western policymakers seemed to expect that developing countries would, over time, embrace the Western approach to democracy and globalization. Few Western leaders seemed to worry that non-Western states might bridle at their norms or perceive the international distribution of power as an unjust remnant of the colonial past.…  Seguir leyendo »

Las raíces conceptuales de la crisis de deuda del Sur Global

La creciente crisis de deuda en el Sur Global, en gran medida, surge de un sistema multilateral fallido. Pero también refleja las deficiencias de los marcos analíticos y de políticas dominantes -específicamente, sus presunciones sobre la naturaleza del dinero, las posibilidades económicas que tienen a su disposición los gobiernos que emiten moneda y las causas subyacentes del endeudamiento externo de los países en desarrollo.

Vistas a través de la lente de la Teoría Monetaria Moderna (TMM), las limitaciones del pensamiento económico tradicional tal como está aplicado a las crisis de deuda soberana se vuelven aún más claras. La idea básica detrás de la TMM es que, a diferencia de los hogares o las empresas privadas, los gobiernos que controlan su propia moneda fiduciaria no pueden entrar en default (suponiendo que su deuda está denominada en su propia moneda).…  Seguir leyendo »

¿Qué es el Sur Global?

El término “Sur Global” se utiliza constantemente. Por ejemplo, algunos comentaristas advierten que la incursión de Israel en Gaza está “alienando al Sur Global”, y a menudo escuchamos que el “Sur Global” quiere un alto el fuego en Ucrania. Pero, ¿qué quiere decir la gente cuando lo usa?

Geográficamente, el término se refiere a los 32 países que se encuentran debajo del ecuador (en el hemisferio sur), en contraste con los 54 países que se encuentran completamente al norte de él. Sin embargo, a menudo se utiliza de manera engañosa como abreviatura de mayoría global, a pesar de que la mayor parte de la población mundial está por encima del ecuador (al igual que la mayor parte de la masa terrestre del mundo).…  Seguir leyendo »

A healthcare worker preparing a COVID-19 vaccine shot, Abuja, Nigeria, March 2021. Afolabi Sotunde / Reuters

This past June, at the closing ceremony of the Summit for a New Global Financing Pact in Paris, South African President Cyril Ramaphosa introduced a topic that, on its face, had little to do with international finance. In remarks to dozens of global leaders, he raised the issue of COVID-19 vaccines. In 2021, when the first COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out, South Africans “felt like we were beggars when it came to vaccine availability”, Ramaphosa said. “The Northern Hemisphere countries . . . were hogging them, and they didn’t want to release them at the time when we needed them most.…  Seguir leyendo »

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and South African President Cyril Ramaphosa in Johannesburg, August 2023. Alet Pretorius / Reuters

Russia’s war in Ukraine has reminded Western observers that a world exists outside the great powers and their core allies. This world, predominantly comprising countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, has resisted taking clear sides in the conflict. The war has thus shone a spotlight on the global South as a major factor in geopolitics. Indeed, Foreign Affairs recently devoted a magazine issue to understanding the motivations of the “Nonaligned World”. Today’s geopolitical landscape is not just defined by the tensions between the United States and its great-power rivals China and Russia but also by the maneuvering of middle powers and even lesser powers.…  Seguir leyendo »