Túnez

Figura 2. Grupos parlamentario de la Asamblea de Representantes del Pueblo (2019)

Tema

El impacto económico y social de la crisis del COVID-19 corre el riesgo de acentuar las fracturas dentro de la sociedad tunecina. Las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas de 2019 mostraron la atomización del escenario político en ese país. Algunos ya plantean la necesidad de refundar la Segunda República tunecina surgida de la Constitución de 2014.

Resumen

Los 100 primeros días del gobierno de Elyes Fakhfakh, resultado de las transacciones entre partidos tras las elecciones de octubre de 2019, han coincidido con la crisis provocada por la pandemia del COVID-19 . Tras la detección, el 2 de marzo, del primer caso de contagio, el nuevo ejecutivo adoptó una batería de medidas preventivas (confinamiento, suspensión de toda conexión aérea y marítima desde el 13 de marzo, interrupción de las actividades escolares, cierre de mezquitas y limitación de la movilidad).…  Seguir leyendo »

Desde la revolución tunecina de 2010-2011, los reformistas han insistido cada vez más en la necesidad de “humanizar” el sistema de justicia penal tunecino y hacerlo más consistente con la nueva Constitución. Gracias a la presión de la sociedad civil, en los últimos años los sucesivos gobiernos han comenzado a adoptar importantes reformas, como una ley de 2016 de protección de los derechos elementales de los sospechosos durante la detención. Más aún, las autoridades están revisando los códigos de procedimientos y las leyes penales.

Sin embargo, el sistema judicial tunecino sigue siendo tremendamente represivo, tanto en las cláusulas de las leyes penales (ya sea las que se encuentran en el código penal mismo o dispersas en estatutos específicos) como en la manera en que estas se implementan.…  Seguir leyendo »

D’après l’Institut national de la statistique (INS), le taux de chômage en Tunisie était de 15,3 % au deuxième trimestre 2019. Près de 43 % des 628 000 sans-emploi sont des diplômés et le chômage est plus important chez les femmes (22,8 %) que chez les hommes (12,3 %). Parallèlement, l’économie informelle représente près de 30 % de l’activité.

Contrebande, emplois non déclarés et fraude fiscale sont les manifestations d’un mal qui rend l’économie formelle de plus en plus vulnérable. La Tunisie souffre d’un manque de compétitivité. Selon le classement du Forum économique mondial 2019-2020, elle occupe le 87e rang sur 141 pays.…  Seguir leyendo »

La elección de Kaïs Saïed a la presidencia de la República de Túnez no sólo es emblemática de la actual situación del país magrebí, sino de una aspiración de todos los pueblos del arco sur del Mediterráneo. En primer lugar, su nombramiento como mandatario ha tenido lugar en un contexto de democracia pluralista real, efectiva, sin coacción autoritaria o mafiosa alguna. En este sentido, es el principal acervo de la revolución democrática de 2011: Túnez sigue demostrando que la ruptura política introducida en aquel año se ha esculpido como una de sus señas de identidad fundadora.

Segundo, se pone de relieve que la reivindicación central del pueblo tunecino, es la de un sistema político basado en la transparencia, la fusión estrecha entre las capas dirigentes y el pueblo, la honestidad como categoría clave en la conducción de los asuntos públicos.…  Seguir leyendo »

President Trump is lashing out against the media and his opposition as he faces impeachment for turning U.S. foreign policy into an extension of his reelection campaign. The British Parliament is poised to vote down Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s legislative program next week, raising the prospect of a “zombie government” crippled by a deepening split over Brexit. And a Polish election has delivered a resounding win for the authoritarian Law and Justice party — effectively rewarding it for a systematic assault on press freedom and other democratic institutions.

This is not a happy time for advocates of liberal democracy.

And yet there was one dazzling bolt of good news that emerged from the darkness this weekend: Tunisia just held the second round of its presidential vote — and the people won.…  Seguir leyendo »

Winners and losers of Tunisia’s parliamentary electionsMembers of Tunisia's Independent High Authority for Elections count votes a day after the parliamentary election. (Riadh Dridi/AP)

Tunisians voted in parliamentary elections on Sunday, their second of three elections scheduled this fall. About 41 percent of registered voters turned out to vote, slightly lower than the 49 percent in the first round of the presidential elections held Sept. 15.

The elections will create a highly fractured parliament, with no party or list receiving more than 20 percent of the vote. While results will be announced Wednesday, exit polls suggest a narrow victory for the moderate Islamist party Ennahda, with about 18 percent of the vote, followed closely by newcomer Qalb Tounes, with about 16 percent. Five smaller parties secured between 4 percent and 6 percent of the vote.…  Seguir leyendo »

Supporters of Tunisia's jailed presidential candidate, Nabil Karoui, attend a campaign event in Tunis on Friday. (Fethi Belaid AFP/Getty Images)

On Sunday, Tunisia is holding the second free presidential election in its history. The Tunisian democracy faces high uncertainty, with a populist candidate, Nabil Karoui, leading in the polls. Among other unprecedented circumstances, the presidential election will precede parliamentary elections set to take place next month. This is due to an exceptional case: the death of the first democratically elected Tunisian president this past July. The reversed order of operations and the unique variety of candidates pose a threat to an already fragile process. Here’s what you should know.

The top two candidates identify as populists.

The name Nabil Karoui may be the biggest surprise of the presidential election.…  Seguir leyendo »

The funerary procession of late Tunisian president Beji Caid Essebsi on 27 July. Photo: Getty Images.

After close to 100 candidate applications, Tunisia’s presidential election on 15 September will feature 27 confirmed candidates, reflecting the country’s fluid political situation and an ongoing split between traditional parties and alliances and enduring anti-establishment populism. The election has been moved up from its originally scheduled November date following the death of President Beji Caid Essebsi on 25 July.

Since the 2011 revolution, the Tunisian political landscape has shifted significantly as electoral coalitions have been made and unmade, and as established political parties have fractured into smaller parties or collapsed amid leadership disagreements. In this context, presidential candidates reflect less party platforms and affiliation and more the ambitions of self-styled charismatic figures.…  Seguir leyendo »

The Tunisian independent electoral commission announced last week the 26 candidates running in next month’s early presidential election. From among Tunisia’s political elite, the list includes the current and multiple former prime ministers, its defense minister and a former president. That’s in addition to a media mogul, a fugitive and, for the first time, an official candidate of the Ennahda Party.

Even though Tunisia has seen multiple elections since its 2011 revolution, this year’s presidential race is shaping up to be an exceptional one: hugely competitive and remarkably unpredictable.

The death of Tunisian President Beji Caid Essebsi on July 25 crucially reshaped the structure of the contest and upended the calculations of parties and candidates.…  Seguir leyendo »

In Tunisia, 47 percent of seats on the ballot in the 2018 municipal assembly elections are now held by women. This increase is due in part to a constitutionally mandated electoral gender quota.

Women are running for — and winning — elected office worldwide in ever greater numbers. A record number of women won seats in the 2018 U.S. midterm elections, and six women are running for the Democratic nomination for president in 2020. Women are also making strides electorally in nondemocratic regimes, including in Rwanda, which currently has the highest proportion of women worldwide in its legislature — 64 percent.…  Seguir leyendo »

Last month, Tunisians finally got to see a five-volume report detailing past abuse and naming people responsible or complicit in the authoritarian system — including the country’s president.

The report, prepared by the Truth and Dignity Commission, was the result of more than four years of work and aims to address the country’s authoritarian past. It delivers important insights in an ongoing justice process — and also shows the challenges Tunisia faces as it tries to move forward.

What is the report about?

The report fulfills several functions: It gives an overview of the Tunisian transitional justice process and explains the work of the truth commission.…  Seguir leyendo »

Divisions within Tunisia’s political leadership are preventing the government from addressing the country’s political and socio-economic challenges. In this excerpt from our Watch List 2019 for European policymakers, Crisis Group urges the EU to support measures that will prevent further polarisation.

Tunisia’s political transition is in trouble. Hopes that the country’s post-uprising leadership would successfully tackle its myriad of political and socio-economic challenges have started to dim. The economy is in the doldrums and the political leadership is increasingly split between Islamists and non-Islamists, both competing for control of state resources. This confluence of problems is stirring a general crisis of confidence in the political elite, and there is reason to fear that the country may backslide from its post-2011 democratic opening ahead of presidential and parliamentary polls at the end of the year.…  Seguir leyendo »

Workers across Tunisia are on strike to demand higher pay in a standoff with a government struggling to tame unemployment, poverty and social tensions. (Hassene Dridi/AP)

The UGTT, Tunisia’s powerful national labor union, began a countrywide strike on Thursday. The union is the most powerful in any Arab country, and it was a co-recipient of the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize for its work in guiding the country through the turbulent post-revolutionary transition. The strike will raise suspicions about the UGTT’s role moving forward as the country deals with fracturing ruling coalitions and a rise of “independent” candidates in the recent local elections.

The UGTT, or the Tunisian General Labor Union, has been a bulwark of Tunisia’s transition to democracy following the 2010-2011 revolution that ousted long-standing dictator Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali.…  Seguir leyendo »

Tunisia established the first independent truth-seeking commission in the Arab world four years ago. Last month, its president, Sihem Bensedrine, announced the commission’s closure.

To many, its mandate and mission symbolized the most important and final pillar of demands made by the 2011 Revolution, which ended decades of dictatorship and single-party rule. But today, few feel that it has lived up to that promise. What went wrong?

What the commission accomplished

The Truth and Dignity Commission (Instance Vérité et Dignité, or IVD, in French) was authorized to investigate state-led abuses from 1955 — a year before Tunisia’s 1956 independence from France — to 2013, two years after the revolution.…  Seguir leyendo »

Des manifestants jettent de pierres contre les forces de l'ordre après avoir érigé des barricades de fortune le 25 décembre 2018 à Kasserine, en Tunisie Photo Hatem SALHI. AFP

Pour son huitième anniversaire, la révolution tunisienne hésite entre le tragique et le découragement. Tragique quand des individus ne voient plus d’autre issue que le suicide, à l’instar du journaliste Abderrazak Zorgui qui s’est immolé le 24 décembre dernier, ou encore quand ils risquent clairement leur vie en traversant la Méditerranée sur des embarcations de fortune. Au-delà de ces cas extrêmes, la Tunisie se vide de personnels diplômés, notamment des médecins qui préfèrent chercher une autre vie en France ou au Canada.

Tout cela s’opère dans un environnement maussade et sur la base d’un constat récurrent de crise. La Tunisie est structurellement marquée par une difficulté à offrir à ses jeunes diplômés des emplois en accord avec leurs qualifications.…  Seguir leyendo »

Cuando las protestas antigubernamentales barrieron el mundo árabe en 2011, Túnez parecía en situación de salir fortalecida. Sin embargo, para 2013 el proceso democrático había sido prácticamente desbaratado por las promesas económicas incumplidas, los desacuerdos políticos e ideológicos y las interferencias extranjeras. Afortunadamente, la mediación local e internacional ayudó a evitar la catástrofe y allanó el camino para las elecciones.

Pero a menos de un año de los próximos comicios generales, programados para fines de 2019, el país vuelve a estar en crisis. En un mundo centrado en la guerra en Siria, la inestabilidad en Libia, la creciente autoconfianza de Rusia, la incertidumbre en Europa y los tuits de un presidente estadounidense aislacionista, Túnez ha ido desapareciendo de los titulares.…  Seguir leyendo »

Abderrazak Zorgui s'est immolé à Kasserine le 24 décembre. Photo capture d'écran sur YouTube

Rien de plus troublant de voir des êtres humains se donner la mort de la façon la plus atroce en s’immolant pour protester. Rien de plus tragique que de voir aujourd’hui des Tunisiens se suicider pour appeler à une nouvelle révolution en Tunisie. Mais cela est plus lourd de sens encore quand il s’agit d’un journaliste comme le fut Abderrazak Zorgui qui a voulu réveiller les consciences par le sacrifice de sa vie, le 24 décembre. Lourd de sens et de signification car les journalistes ne sont pas a priori les plus démunis. Ils disposent d’un moyen redoutable pour agir sur le monde : l’écriture.…  Seguir leyendo »

Eight years ago, the Arab Spring uprisings led to the overthrow of longtime dictators Hosni Mubarak in Egypt and Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali in Tunisia. Many have attributed these unexpectedly quick ousters to the countries’ militaries defecting from the regime and siding with the opposition. But these depictions are not only inaccurate, they also have serious implications for theory and policy.

In a recent article, we argue that such interpretation of these events represent “Myths of Military Defection.” These myths have led scholars to inaccurately compare two very different armed forces and equate defection from the regime with support of the opposition.…  Seguir leyendo »

Extraño e interesante país. Crucial, a pesar de su tamaño limitado. Allí arrancaron las revueltas árabes de 2011 y allí se mantiene viva todavía la esperanza gracias a sus libertades, su democracia parlamentaria y su Estado de derecho como un auténtico islote en un océano de dictaduras, opresión y arbitrariedad.

Todo es excepcional en la transición tunecina a la democracia, iniciada el 14 de enero de 2011, tras el derrocamiento y huida del dictador Ben Ali, empujado por la imparable rebelión juvenil que estalló un 17 de diciembre de hace ocho años, tras la muerte de Mohamed Buazizi, un vendedor de fruta de una localidad del Túnez interior, Sidi Bouazid, que se prendió fuego con gasolina después de que la policía le incautara la mercancía.…  Seguir leyendo »

There is little to cheer 12 million Tunisians as they approach the eighth anniversary of the fall of Ben Ali next month. Security it is true has improved a lot since the terrorist attacks which devastated the important tourist sector in July 2015 and foreign visitors are back with a vengeance. The first democratic local elections last May passed off without a hitch. Greater freedom of speech (and insult) prevail, torture has virtually disappeared. Tunisia has escaped the fate of the other Arab countries which revolted against their dictators in 2011 only to sink into more repressive regimes (Egypt) or bloody mayhem (Syria, Yemen and Libya).…  Seguir leyendo »