Terrorismo Internacional

Resumen 1

El siguiente trabajo describe las dinámicas de la violencia guerrillera en Colombia por parte de las FARC-EP y el ELN antes, durante y después del Acuerdo de Paz suscrito con la primera de las guerrillas en 2016. De este modo, se trata de poner en valor cómo la presencia territorial de ambos grupos armados se redefinió bajo una fuerte impronta periférica y una mayor dependencia cocalera, características que responden a un paulatino proceso de debilitamiento acontecido, sobre todo, entre 2002 y 2012. Asimismo, se muestra la resignificación y la intensificación de la violencia en la actualidad, resultado de un proceso de implementación del Acuerdo de Paz con muchas dificultades, en donde los nuevos protagonistas en el fondo responden a las mismas lógicas tradicionales, operando en los mismos territorios que cuando existían las FARC-EP.…  Seguir leyendo »

Colombia parece no estar preparada para la reconciliación. Incluso en medio de la pandemia —que supondría una tregua frente a un escenario catastrófico—, las tensiones políticas no ceden. Los vendajes que cubren las heridas del pasado se deshacen con una facilidad sorprendente. La semana pasada, esa fragilidad volvió a quedar en evidencia con el nombramiento de Jorge Rodrigo Tovar Vélez en un cargo público.

El joven abogado fue designado como coordinador del Grupo de Articulación Interna para la Política de Víctimas del Conflicto Armado: una posición que, como su nombre lo indica, lidia con los rezagos de la guerra. Tovar Vélez conoce el tema y nunca ha sido cuestionado por su conducta.…  Seguir leyendo »

It’s no secret that Colombia’s president, Iván Duque, and his ruling party have never been fond of the peace agreement signed with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) guerrillas in 2016. The deal has come under enormous pressure over the years, but the pandemic has provided the perfect pretext to avoid its implementation.

The government recently called for the exclusion of former FARC commanders from politics, a critical element of the negotiations, while killings of demobilized combatants and human rights defenders have risen during the quarantine. Meanwhile, plans to restart fumigation of illicit crops, discouraged by the deal, are moving forward, and money allocated to peace programs is being used to promote the president.…  Seguir leyendo »

An Iraqi fighter with the Popular Mobilisation Forces inspects the site of the Islamic State (IS) group attack, May 3, 2020. AFP/AHMAD AL-RUBAYE

On the night of Friday, 1 May, the Islamic State (ISIS) launched one of its most ambitious operations in Iraq in recent memory. Several units of the jihadist group converged on Iraqi paramilitary forces securing a rural section of Salahuddin province, engaging them in an hours-long attack that ended with ten paramilitaries dead. The 1 May assault followed a month in which ISIS had become more direct and aggressive in its attacks on Iraqi security forces.

A military official in the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS, the U.S.-led multilateral partnership that has supported Iraq’s fight against the group, noted the complexity of the Salahuddin attack and several others that weekend.…  Seguir leyendo »

El lunes fue un día extraño en Italia. Por primera vez en más de dos meses las portadas de los periódicos no estuvieron copadas por el coronavirus. La atención se centró en la liberación de Silvia Romano, la cooperante de veinticinco años secuestrada en Kenia hace dieciocho meses.

A su llegada al aeropuerto de Ciampino (Roma), envuelta en un hiyab verde, sus primeras palabras fueron para destacar su buen estado físico y mental, y su conversión espontánea al islam.

Al margen de su decisión de abrazar la religión profesada por sus captores -tomada libremente, como afirma, o favorecida por algún mecanismo de complicidad afectiva con quienes la mantuvieron secuestrada-, merece la pena analizar las dinámicas del secuestro y de la liberación.…  Seguir leyendo »

Afghanistan’s «peace deal» has been blown up. The government has resumed fighting the Taliban after a horrifying attack by gunmen on a maternity ward run by Doctors Without Borders in Kabul. Mothers and nurses were the main victims in the first attack, with 16 killed. Two of the dead were newborns.

Although the Taliban denied being responsible for the attack, Afghanistan’s national security adviser, Hamdullah Mohib, stated on Twitter that «their attacks this spring against Afghans are comparable to the level of fighting in past fighting seasons …This is not peace, nor its beginnings,» and that there is «little point in continuing to engage Taliban in ‘peace talks.’ …  Seguir leyendo »

Chanting "White lives matter!," several hundred white nationalists and white supremacists carrying torches marched in Charlottesville on Aug. 11, 2017. (Evelyn Hockstein for The Washington Post)

Last month, the State Department designated a Russian white supremacist group, the Russian Imperial Movement, as a global terrorist organization and imposed sanctions on three of its leaders. The designations identified this group as providing training to white supremacists and neo-Nazis in Europe, which resulted in attacks carried out by two individuals in Sweden. The State Department described its action against the Russia Imperial Movement as “unprecedented.» Indeed, it was the first time financial sanctions have been used to target a white supremacist group. One State Department official said that “we are taking actions no previous administration has taken to counter this threat.”…  Seguir leyendo »

Tema

Este documento analiza las comunicaciones emitidas por dos principales organizaciones del yihadismo global –al-Qaeda y Estado Islámico– sobre la pandemia del coronavirus y sus posibles implicaciones en materia de seguridad para nuestras sociedades.

Resumen

La crisis del COVID-19 no ha pasado desapercibida para el movimiento yihadista global, caracterizado por su gran capacidad de resiliencia y adaptación a los nuevos contextos. Las dos principales organizaciones de referencia en la actualidad han difundido comunicaciones oficiales en las que ofrecen su particular visión de los hechos. Sin embargo, aunque el diagnóstico es coincidente, la respuesta varía en función de si nos referimos a al-Qaeda, más ideológico, o a Estado Islámico, que se dirige de forma más directa y enérgica a sus seguidores.…  Seguir leyendo »

Macomia, Cabo Delgado, Northern Mozambique. Photo by EMIDIO JOSINE/AFP via Getty Images.

On March 23 to 24, the centre of Mocimboa da Praia in Cabo Delgado province was occupied by up to 40 “jihadists”, who targeted government facilities, including a barracks, and brandished banners of affiliation to the so-called Islamic State.

On March 25, suspected jihadists raided the town of Quissanga and destroyed the district police headquarters. They too carried an Islamic State flag. Twenty to 30 members of Mozambique’s security forces were killed in both attacks.

Mocimboa da Praia is just south of the Afungi Peninsula, the location of gas projects worth $60- billion. Mocimboa was briefly occupied in late 2017, during attacks claimed by a group known as Ahlu Sunnah Wa-Jama (or al-Sunnah) that marked the start of a brutal low-intensity conflict, with widespread human rights abuses and attacks on civilians.…  Seguir leyendo »

An article entitled “The Crusaders’ Worst Nightmare” in the ISIS newsletter al-Naba. Crisis Group downloaded the newsletter from the website Jihadology. The newsletter was originally distributed by ISIS’s messaging network.

As the COVID-19 pandemic swiftly reorders the priorities of policymakers and the public worldwide, conflicts that only recently occupied centre stage in the global policy and media debate are receding into the background. The fight against the Islamic State (ISIS) in Iraq, Syria and elsewhere is no exception.

But while UN Secretary-General António Guterres has argued that mankind faces a common enemy in COVID-19, and thus appealed for a “global ceasefire”, ISIS has made clear that it sees things differently. In a new editorial in its weekly newsletter, ISIS has told its membership that their globe-spanning war is to go on, even as the virus spreads.…  Seguir leyendo »

Cráter en el suelo de un vagón del tren de Santa Eugenia ignorado en todas las pruebas periciales.

Han pasado 16 años desde el 11-M y seguimos sin saber quién ordenó destruir los trenes y todo su contenido, quién consiguió sustituir las pruebas más importantes -las obtenidas en el lugar de los hechos- por una mochila que nadie vio en los trenes.

Seguimos sin saber por qué nadie ha investigado esa evidente destrucción de pruebas, ni tampoco cómo les pudo pasar desapercibida una mochila bomba de 11 kilos a los especialistas de los Tedax en la estación de El Pozo.

Destrucción inicial

Desde el primer momento, alguien se puso en marcha para destruir los elementos de prueba del 11-M, pues no de otra manera se puede interpretar la masiva retirada de material probatorio de los trenes que se empezó a realizar 24 horas después de la masacre.…  Seguir leyendo »

Mourners attend a memorial service for victims of the racist terror attack in Hanau, Germany, 28 February 2020. Photograph: Armando Babani/EPA

I have to admit that when I heard the news my first thought was: “I hope the perpetrator wasn’t a migrant.” The press would surely go at us hammer and tongs again, warning about the danger posed by immigration in general and Muslims in particular. There would be endless articles and talk shows discussing the threat. My second thought was: “Thank God it is a white guy.”

On 19 February, Tobias Rathjen went into two shisha bars in the town of Hanau, near Frankfurt, shooting people he described as “foreign”. In his “manifesto”, if you can call such a rambling text a manifesto, he stated he wanted to cleanse Germany from … us.…  Seguir leyendo »

La chancelière Angela Merkel a qualifié la tuerie de Hanau de « crime de haine ». Elle a ainsi mis ces tirs mortels sur le même plan que la série d’attentats commise par le Parti national-socialiste souterrain (NSU) entre 2000 et 2011, l’assassinat du préfet Walter Lübcke en juin 2019 et l’attentat contre la synagogue de Halle en octobre 2019. Ces quatre actes terroristes ont en commun d’avoir profondément perturbé la perception qu’ont les Allemands d’eux-mêmes.

Ceux-ci se sont longtemps crus vaccinés contre toute dérive d’extrême droite grâce à leur maîtrise particulière du passé (le Vergangenheitsbewältigung) c’est-à-dire leur travail mémoriel sur le nazisme.…  Seguir leyendo »

Military commanders inspect arms and ammunitions recovered from Boko Haram jihadists. Audu Marte/AFP via Getty Images

The Nigerian government recently announced that it had released about 1,400 Boko Haram suspects. The reason given was they had repented and were to be re-integrated into society. The government said the releases – which happened in three tranches – were part of its four-year old de-radicalisation programme called Operation Safe Corridor.

The announcement generated a lot of angst. Opposition leaders attacked the decision, as did soldiers fighting the terrorists.

These reactions mask a fundamental challenge facing governments in conflict situations: how does it deal with defectors? Simply executing combatants, or detaining them indefinitely, aren’t viable options. De-radicalisation and re-integration programmes therefore become unavoidable.…  Seguir leyendo »

Soldiers arrive home in the middle of the night to a snowstorm at Fort Drum in 2011.Credit...Damon Winter/The New York Times

Outside the headquarters of the Army’s 10th Mountain Division at Fort Drum stands a monument to the unit, the one most frequently deployed in the years since the attacks of 9/11. Two wiry soldiers, frozen in bronze, help each other ascend a crag with the help of a rope. Etched around the monument is the unit’s motto: “Climb to Glory.”

I walked around the stone and bronze, in the frigid darkness of upstate New York, for a good 20 minutes last month, as my old friend Capt. Richard Murphy stood just out of earshot and spoke on his phone about his looming deployment to Afghanistan and about suicide.…  Seguir leyendo »

Cuando en noviembre Usman Khan mató a dos personas a cuchilladas en el Puente de Londres (antes de ser abatido por la policía), hubo quienes, como era previsible, trataron de sacar rédito político de este acto terrorista. En particular, el primer ministro del Reino Unido, Boris Johnson, se apresuró a pedir penas de prisión más largas y el fin de la “liberación anticipada automática” de terroristas con condena.

En las dos décadas que pasaron desde los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001 en Estados Unidos, el terrorismo se ha vuelto el objeto de pánico moral arquetípico en el mundo occidental.…  Seguir leyendo »

Protesters calling for an overhaul of Iraq’s political system in Baghdad on Friday. Instability in Iraq could open the way for an Islamic State resurgence there.Credit...Sergey Ponomarev for The New York Times

In 2016, Donald Trump, then a candidate for president, described Barack Obama as the “founder of ISIS.” In the end, it may be Mr. Trump who comes to be known not as the terrorist group’s founder, but as its savior.

The Islamic State has been weakened considerably since its peak in 2015, when it controlled a territory the size of Britain, but the Trump administration’s targeted killing of Maj. Gen. Qassim Suleimani may have poised the group for a comeback. Just as the misguided American invasion of Iraq in 2003 revitalized Al Qaeda, some 17 years later, a return to chaos in the same country may yet do the same for the Islamic State.…  Seguir leyendo »

Membre des forces de sécurité dans le désert de l'Aïr, région d'Agadez, Niger, février 2019. CRISISGROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Le 13 janvier à Pau, le président Macron et ses homologues du G5-Sahel (Mauritanie, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Tchad) discuteront de la situation dans le Sahel en présence du secrétaire général des Nations unies, du président de la commission de l’Union Africaine et du chef de la diplomatie européenne. Sauf surprise, cette réunion de haut niveau devrait se contenter de réaffirmer l’engagement des différents pays à lutter ensemble contre le terrorisme jihadiste qui gagne tant de terrain au Sahel. Pourtant, face à l’ampleur des insurrections, les opérations militaires menées par la France et les pays sahéliens ne peuvent constituer une réponse suffisante tant qu’elles n’appuient pas une réponse politique claire qui continue de faire défaut.…  Seguir leyendo »

Les fausses nouvelles

La deuxième décennie de ce siècle tourmenté a commencé deux ans plus tard pour les Colombiens : lorsque, en 2012, le gouvernement a annoncé l’ouverture d’un dialogue de paix avec la guérilla des FARC. Il s’agissait d’aboutir à la sortie négociée d’une guerre qui, remontant à plus d’un demi-siècle, avait laissé sur son chemin près d’un quart de million de morts, et dont le nombre des autres victimes – blessés, individus enlevés ou contraints de partir ailleurs en raison de la violence multiforme – s’élevait au chiffre effroyable de plus de sept millions.

Par le passé, des négociations similaires avaient été initiées à plusieurs reprises avant de se solder par des échecs retentissants.…  Seguir leyendo »

On Nov. 29, London Bridge was the site of another terrorist attack. Usman Khan, a 28-year-old convicted on terrorism offences in 2012 and then released from jail last year, stabbed two people to death and injured three others. British police shot and killed Khan, and the Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attack the following day.

A week later, a Saudi trainee at a Navy base in Pensacola, Fla., murdered three sailors before military security shot him dead. The Navy grounded nearly 300 Saudi trainees while the FBI investigated the incident as a presumed terrorist attack.

These two acts jolted Western governments and security agencies to the risk of jihadist terrorism.…  Seguir leyendo »