Extrema derecha

Hace un mes me apeé de un taxi en la Plaza Mayor de Predappio, ciudad santuario del neofascismo italiano. Me sorprendió el carácter ascético de las celebraciones organizadas aquel día, por el cumpleaños de Benito Mussolini. Empapado como estaba de imágenes de la Marcha de la Independencia polaca o las peregrinaciones religiosas de hinchas a Jasna Góra, esperaba un mar de pancartas y un cielo teñido de ardientes llamas. En cambio, el líder de la Última Legión, el partido neofascista convocante, ordenó que se marchase en completo silencio y serenidad. Nada de gritos ni de cánticos.

La ultraderecha polaca, siempre que se reúne, forma un coro que grita “muerte a los enemigos de la patria”, “deshojaremos los árboles para colgar a los comunistas”, o define a la familia polaca como un marido y su mujer.…  Seguir leyendo »

Los votantes de Vox, el partido de extrema derecha en España, han tomado fuerza en estos últimos años (Bernat Armangue)

El primer partido de extrema derecha que ha llegado al Parlamento español en cuatro décadas se llama Vox. Es un partido machista, como el estadounidense Donald Trump. Xenófobo, como el italiano Matteo Salvini. Homófobo, como el brasileño Jair Bolsonaro. Autoritario, como la francesa Marine Le Pen. Entre otros muchos excesos, sus dirigentes han asegurado que los inmigrantes pueden traer “pandemias como el ébola”; que la homosexualidad “no es amor sino vicio” y “se puede curar con terapias”; que la prostitución es “la forma más segura” de tener sexo y evitar una denuncia por violación si eres hombre; y que las feministas son “feas como las hermanastras de Cenicienta”.…  Seguir leyendo »

This past weekend, elections in two states in eastern Germany, Brandenburg and Saxony, saw the populist radical-right party Alternative for Germany surge ahead, though it fell short of wins. Its success has revived an old German — and, indeed, European — debate on how best to counter the rise of the radical right.

Former leader of the Christian Social Union Franz-Josef Strauss once said that in Germany, “No legitimate political party can be right of the CSU.” This claim, which became the mantra of postwar German politics, was based on the idea that if the alliance between the CSU and Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Christian Democratic Union positioned themselves enough to the right, they would be able to win the far-right share of the electorate and forestall the rise of a radical-right party.…  Seguir leyendo »

People hold a banner on Sept. 7, 2018, reading "We are the people" during a march organized by the right-wing populist "Pro Chemnitz" movement in Chemnitz, the flashpoint eastern German city that saw protests marred by neo-Nazi violence. (John MacDougall/AFP/Getty Images)

In eastern Germany on Sunday, two populous states (or Bundesländer) will elect their regional legislatures — in votes that are quite important for German politics at large. For months, polls have shown the far-right Alternative for Germany (AfD) competing for first place both in Brandenburg, the state surrounding Berlin, and in Saxony, with Dresden and Leipzig as major cities.

While the AfD has significant support throughout Germany, the party is particularly strong in many of the neue Bundesländer, or new federal states, created in the territory of the former communist German Democratic Republic (GDR). Here’s what you need to know about Sunday’s vote.…  Seguir leyendo »

En Francia, Marine Le Pen empuja; en Inglaterra triunfa Nigel Farage; en Italia gana Matteo Salvini; y en Hungría domina Viktor Orbán. Por el contrario, en Austria ha fracasado el intento de incluir a la formación nacionalista de derechas Partido de la Libertad de Austria en el Gobierno conservador (al igual que todos los intentos anteriores), y en Alemania los partidos siguen esforzándose por mantener a Alternativa para Alemania lo más lejos posible.

¿Integrar o excluir? ¿Qué funciona mejor a la larga? O, invirtiendo los términos: ¿negar el poder a un partido puede favorecerlo, al permitirle presentarse como víctima? ¿Obtendrá así una recompensa mayor por parte de su electorado?…  Seguir leyendo »

Si bien parecería lógico que la crisis económica europea —con el consiguiente aumento de las desigualdades— acabara provocando el ascenso de los partidos populistas de izquierdas, con sus compromisos de atender a las necesidades materiales de los votantes, son los populistas de extrema derecha, con su promesa de restablecer la “soberanía nacional” en nombre del “pueblo”, los que han sacado más provecho de las inseguridades sociales. El Reagrupamiento Nacional (RN) francés, que es el antiguo Frente Nacional; el Partido de la Libertad holandés (PVV); el Partido de la Libertad austriaco (FPÖ); Alternativa por Alemania (AfD) y la Liga italiana han movilizado a votantes de todo el espectro político con sus programas populistas y nacionalistas.…  Seguir leyendo »

Earlier this month in Italy, angry protesters and members of the extreme-right party CasaPound Italia (CPI) tried to block a Roma family from accessing its assigned council apartment in the Casal Bruciato district of Rome. When riot police escorted a woman and her child back to the apartment, some protesters raised their arms in a fascist salute; others shouted racial insults and rape threats.

This was just one of a series of CPI-promoted anti-immigration actions in low-income neighborhoods in Italy. The Italian media also spotlighted the arrest this spring of a CasaPound town councilor for alleged gang rape, and the mounting controversy over the participation of the group’s semiofficial publisher in the Turin international book fair.…  Seguir leyendo »

Was it an invitation to cocktails or the start of a far-right conspiracy? In Europe, these days, it can be hard to tell. But this week Austrian media are reporting that the links between Martin Sellner and Brenton Tarrant were rather more extensive. Sellner is the clean-cut leader of the Austrian Identitarian Movement; Tarrant is the man charged with shooting up two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand. The two exchanged emails in 2018 after Tarrant made a donation to the Identitarians; Sellner sent Tarrant a link to his YouTube page and invited him for a beer in Vienna. Tarrant booked a hotel in Vienna, though we don’t know if he got there.…  Seguir leyendo »

Santiago Abascal, leader of Spain's Vox party, waves to supporters at a rally in Madrid on April 26. (Juan Medina/Reuters)

Post Opinions invited readers to submit questions about her Opinions Essay, “Want to build a far-right movement? Spain’s Vox party shows how.” What follows are lightly edited questions and answers about the essay.

Do you have any suggestions or thoughts for countries that wish to counteract the rise of the alt-right and far right?

Lots of politicians and political parties across Europe are struggling with that question right now. This is really the central question for all contemporary democracies. It’s a big subject, so I’ll mention just a few examples.

In many European countries where there are several parties in parliament, preventing an angry minority from dominating a fragmented majority is an important strategic objective.…  Seguir leyendo »

Supporters of far-right party Vox check their phones outside the party headquarters while waiting for results of the general election in Madrid on April 28. (Manu Fernandez/AP)

Politics isn’t what it used to be. Increasingly, we are seeing fragmented landscapes, highly polarized debates, a brutalization of the public discourse and new forces emerging. And we’re no longer seeing the revolution coming, but rather the counterrevolution starting to emerge.

These are some trends that Anne Applebaum notes in her Post essay, “Want to build a far-right movement? Spain’s Vox party shows how.” She traces the origins and character of the Vox party, which has suddenly emerged to become a force in the Spanish parliament, though it received less of the vote share than many other parties on the extreme conservative wing in Europe these days.…  Seguir leyendo »

Catalan pro-independence demonstrators rally in Madrid on March 16. (Emilio Morenatti/AP)

The Spanish extreme right is fueled by a fear of true democracy, of diversity, of equal opportunities and women’s rights. They have used fear and hate as their main tools to cultivate growth, as Anne Applebaum’s deeply reported essay shows.

In Spain, the rise of the extreme right originated from internal divisions and power struggles within the conservative Partido Popular (PP). Vox, the far-right party that just recently won its first seats in the national Congress, emerged from this rift. Under the leadership of party leader José María Aznar, the extreme right felt that it was well-represented by the PP, but the period led by Mariano Rajoy led to the breakaway of leaders and the creating of parties such as Vox, which are far more willing to admire former dictator Francisco Franco and the traditional goals of Spanish fascism.…  Seguir leyendo »

Want to build a far-right movement

Amanece en la campiña española. En cámara lenta, un hombre camina, corre y salta una cerca. Como en una película de Hollywood, el hombre cruza un campo de trigo mientras roza las espigas con sus manos. Durante todo este tiempo, suena una música mientras una voz narra: «Si no te ríes del honor porque no quieres vivir entre traidores… si anhelas nuevos horizontes sin despreciar tus viejos orígenes… si conservas intacta tu honradez en tiempos de corrupción…».

Sale el sol. El hombre sube por un camino empinado, cruza un río y queda atrapado en una tormenta. “Si sientes gratitud y orgullo por quienes, de uniforme, guardan el muro… si amas a tu patria como amas a tus padres…”.…  Seguir leyendo »

Want to build a far-right movement

It is dawn in the Spanish countryside. A man is walking, and then running, in slow motion. He climbs a fence. He crosses a field of wheat while brushing his hands, as in a Hollywood movie, across the tops of the sheaves. All the while, music is playing and a voice is speaking: «If you don’t laugh at honor because you don’t want to live among traitors . . . if you look toward new horizons without despising your old origins . . . if you can keep your honesty intact in times of corruption . . .»

The sun rises.…  Seguir leyendo »

Nos enfrentamos a una sublevación posmoderna contra la civilización liberal. Una agitación profunda que brota del fuste torcido de una españolidad que se vive en peligro y amenazada en sus fundamentos eternos. La arquitectura de los consensos de nuestra democracia sufre una serie de detonaciones reaccionarias que colapsan la estructura de moderación, laicidad y pluralismo que nació con la Transición. Hablamos de acciones que impugnan las bases de la restauración democrática y que nos retrotraen a una España autoritaria, reconcentrada sobre sí misma y con una inquietante voracidad homogeneizadora.

La causa de este cambio radica en la irrupción de una extrema derecha que impone un marco de referencia que percute sobre el conjunto del sistema de partidos.…  Seguir leyendo »

A woman walks past flowers and tributes displayed in memory of those who died in a mass shooting in Christchurch, New Zealand, last month. (Sanka Vidanagama/AFP)

The March 15 terrorist attack in Christchurch, New Zealand, triggered a debate about the terrorist threat from the far right in Western democracies. Two competing narratives leave the public with mixed signals.

On the one hand, right-wing terrorism is often portrayed as marginal compared to Islamist terrorism. This is also reflected in terrorism research, which, since the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, has mainly been preoccupied with Islamist terrorism. This one-sided focus on Islamist terrorism may have kept the public unaware of the fact that in most Western democracies, the number of deadly attacks motivated by far-right beliefs is considerably higher than those motivated by Islamism, including in the United States.…  Seguir leyendo »

En Italie et en Autriche, elle est au gouvernement ; en France, elle est représentée à l’Assemblée nationale ; en Suède, elle est aux portes du pouvoir ; en Allemagne, elle est dans les rues et elle chasse les migrants. Nous pourrions multiplier les exemples…

L’extrême droite a le vent en poupe en Europe. De quoi se nourrit-elle ? Pourquoi est-elle aussi dynamique ?

Le dynamisme des extrêmes droites populistes européennes n’a pas échappé à l’œil avisé de Steve Bannon, ancien proche conseiller du président américain Donald Trump. Il a fait, ces derniers mois, la tournée des groupuscules européens afin de les unifier.…  Seguir leyendo »