Crímenes contra la Humanidad

El pasado 20 de mayo, el fiscal jefe del Tribunal Penal Internacional (TPI), el británico Karim Khan, solicitó que la Sala de Cuestiones Preliminares de ese Tribunal dictara órdenes de detención por la comisión de crímenes contra la humanidad y crímenes de guerra contra tres miembros de la cúpula de Hamás —Yahya Sinwar, jefe de Hamás en la franja de Gaza; Mohamed Diab Ibrahim al Marsi, comandante en jefe de las Brigadas de Al Qassam, e Ismail Haniya, jefe del buró político de Hamás—, así como contra el primer ministro israelí —Benjamín Netanyahu— y el ministro de Defensa —Yoav Gallant—.

A nadie se le escapa la gravedad de la situación: más de 35.000 muertos palestinos, civiles en su inmensa mayoría, con el 80% de las viviendas destruidas o gravemente dañadas, más de un millón de personas desplazadas, que sufren ataques indiscriminados de forma diaria, la infraestructura médica y hospitalaria ha sido eliminada, a lo que se suma una hambruna galopante causada por la privación intencionada de ayuda humanitaria a la población gazatí.…  Seguir leyendo »

Lo venía advirtiendo el británico Karim Khan, fiscal de la Corte Penal Internacional: «Quienes no cumplan la ley no deben quejarse después cuando mi oficina tome medidas». Hay que recordar que la CPI ya había afirmado su competencia sobre los crímenes cometidos por ambas partes en el conflicto israelí-palestino en febrero de 2021, tras la sumisión de la situación por parte de Palestina, superado un complejo debate jurídico que se prolongó durante años. Por ello, aun no siendo Israel parte en el Estatuto, la CPI tiene competencia para enjuiciar los crímenes cometidos por sus nacionales en territorio palestino, y también la tiene para enjuiciar a los nacionales palestinos, aunque cometan crímenes en Israel.…  Seguir leyendo »

US President Joe Biden boards Air Force One before departing Manchester-Boston Regional Airport on May 21, 2024 in Manchester, New Hampshire. (Photo by MANDEL NGAN/AFP via Getty Images)

The temperature has been steadily rising on US–Israel relations this month. President Biden warned on 8 May that he would halt certain weapon deliveries if Israel launched a major ground invasion of Rafah. But new polling suggests this did little to improve his approval ratings and that he may be losing momentum in key swing states.

Meanwhile Gaza war protests were surging across US college campuses, underscoring a generational change in attitudes among Jewish Americans, with younger American Jews less wedded to supporting Israel than their elders. Younger Jewish Americans are, for example, far less willing to support sending aircraft carriers to defend Israel and less supportive of Biden visiting the country.…  Seguir leyendo »

Karim Khan, chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Court, in Bogotá, Colombia, on April 25. (Luis Acosta/AFP/Getty Images)

On Monday, Karim Khan, the chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, announced that he was seeking arrest warrants for both Israeli and Hamas senior officials on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Post Opinions asked six experts for their view of the decision.

Avi Mayer: The ICC has united Israel in opposition

In the immediate aftermath of the pogrom perpetrated by Hamas on Oct. 7, Israelis of all backgrounds and beliefs came together in a demonstration of unity seldom seen in this country. The impassioned debates of the preceding months seemed to vanish overnight as the country rallied behind efforts to support the victims of the carnage and the families of the hostages — and to ensure that Hamas can never again carry out a comparable massacre.…  Seguir leyendo »

‘It is time for these key western governments to reconsider.’ Photograph: Anadolu/Getty Images

‘It is time for these key western governments to reconsider.’ Photograph: Anadolu/Getty Images

The Israeli prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, responded with predictable vitriol to international criminal court (ICC) accusations against him and the Israeli defense minister, Yoav Gallant. Yet his arguments are all spin, designed to divert attention from their devastating conduct in Gaza. The American, British and German governments were little better.

On Monday, the court’s chief prosecutor, Karim Khan, announced that he would seek arrest warrants for Netanyahu and Gallant as well as three senior Hamas officials. He proposed charges against the Hamas leadership for atrocities on 7 October as well as the mistreatment of the hostages since then.…  Seguir leyendo »

F ace à la tragédie en cours à Gaza, certains choisissent de s’indigner de l’accusation de génocide à l’encontre d’Israël, plutôt que des atrocités commises. Ils rejettent une accusation qui reviendrait à « franchir un seuil moral », pour reprendre les propos du ministre de l’Europe et des affaires étrangères, Stéphane Séjourné, en janvier. Si le concept « génocide », créé par Raphael Lemkin en 1944 pour désigner l’intention délibérée d’anéantir un peuple, porte effectivement un poids symbolique considérable, en particulier vis-à-vis d’un Etat conçu comme un refuge pour les survivants de l’Holocauste, il est juridiquement défini, tant par le droit conventionnel que par la jurisprudence internationale.…  Seguir leyendo »

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel and Hamas’s Yahya Sinwar.Credit...Photo Illustration by The New York Times. Photographs by Amir Cohen/Agence France-Presse, Via Getty Images; Mustafa Hassona/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

In seeking the arrests of senior leaders of Israel and Hamas, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has given the world a promise of accountability.

Regardless of the outcome of the cases, the prosecutor’s request that the court issue arrest warrants for Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Hamas’s Yahya Sinwar helps cut through the polarizing language of the moment and promotes the idea that the basic rules of international humanitarian law apply to all. Anyone demanding an end to the conflict in Gaza and the release of all hostages from the grasp of Hamas should embrace the decision.

The prosecutor, Karim Khan, has also brought accusations against Hamas’s Muhammad Deif and Ismail Haniyeh.…  Seguir leyendo »

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has warned the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague against issuing arrest warrants for Israeli leaders and commanders after its investigation into the war in Gaza. Ronen Zvulun/Reuters/File

The signs are mounting that the International Criminal Court (ICC) is weighing an indictment against Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and other top Israeli officials over Israel’s conduct of its war against Hamas in Gaza. This would be an earthquake and could be seen as a case of selective justice that ends up helping the beleaguered prime minister politically.

The ICC, which was established in 2002, is more of a club of about 125 countries that tries to make the rules than a true manifestation of consensual “international law” — and it occupies a rather fuzzy position vis-à-vis non-member states like the United States and Israel.…  Seguir leyendo »

Palestinians receive food rations at a donation point in Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip on February 2, 2024, as fighting continues between Israel and the Palestinian Hamas group. Photo: © Said Khatib / AFP

“You have to hear this to believe this. The International Criminal Court in the Hague is contemplating issuing arrest warrants against senior Israeli government and military officials, as war criminals. ” On 30 April 2024, Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu released a four-minute video statement addressing mounting speculation among international and Israeli media that senior Israeli officials could soon be subject to arrest warrants from the International Criminal Court (ICC). It is speculated that they will be accused, among other things, of deliberately depriving Gazans of food. On 3 May 2024, the Office of ICC Prosecutor Karim Khan put out a statement condemning any attempt to retaliate against the court for its investigations.…  Seguir leyendo »

A Ukrainian power plant heavily damaged by recent Russian missile strikes. Valentyn Ogirenko/Reuters

In late March, after two years of withering attacks on Ukraine, Russia knocked out half of Ukraine’s power supply. Up to that point, Russia’s missiles and kamikaze drones had mostly targeted the Ukrainian substations that push electricity from power plants to consumers. But this time they hit the plants themselves, severely damaging and destroying hydroelectric and fossil fuel stations — all of which are difficult to repair or replace.

When power stops, life grinds to a halt. Lights go out. Sewage treatment stops. Clean water stops. Electric cars, buses and trolleys stop. Elevators stop, trapping older and disabled people. For many, home heating, refrigeration, cooking and clothes washing stops, along with medical devices such as oxygen generators.…  Seguir leyendo »

Palestinians view the damage at al-Shifa Hospital in Gaza City on April 1. (Dawoud Abu Alkas/Reuters)

How does it feel to be a war-crimes reporter whose family bankrolled a nation that’s committing war crimes?

I can tell you.

I covered the genocide in Bosnia for The Post, wrote a book about it, and reported from Iraq and Afghanistan, among other conflict-ridden countries. Also, my ancestors were key funders of Jewish immigration to British-controlled Palestine. The Warburgs and Schiffs donated millions of dollars to that cause, and during the war between Jews and Arabs that started in 1948, they helped raise vast sums for the new state of Israel. When Golda Meir made an emergency fundraising visit to the United States, one of the philanthropists she met with was an uncle of mine who led the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.…  Seguir leyendo »

My Story Was Told in ‘Hotel Rwanda.’ Here’s What I Want the World to Know Now.

This week, the world will again turn its eyes toward Rwanda. April 6 marks 30 years since the start of one of the most horrific events in modern history, the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Nearer in time but not unrelated, it has been just over one year since I left Rwanda and returned to the United States, released from prison after 939 days in captivity.

I have not yet spoken at length about what those years in a Rwandan prison were like, or about the daily reality for Rwandan political prisoners who, like me, found themselves behind bars for exercising their freedom of expression.…  Seguir leyendo »

Eva Erben termina de hablar ante alumnos en un instituto de Múnich sobre cómo sobrevivió a un campo de exterminio nazi cuando era niña. Se toca uno de sus pendientes de perla, se recoloca el pañuelo, los ojos verdes brillantes, las manos arqueadas por la artritis, y camina hacia la salida bajo un halo de admiración, pero también de preocupación y fragilidad. La memoria viva del Holocausto se extingue y Alemania cuestiona su cultura de la memoria.

Este país lleva décadas trabajando la culpa y la responsabilidad del Holocausto y, sin embargo, el conflicto de Gaza ha mostrado grietas en lo que parecía un sólido iceberg de historia.…  Seguir leyendo »

Una mujer que denuncia que en marzo de 2022 fue víctima de abusos por parte de soldados rusos, cerca de Kiev (Ucrania) en marzo de 2023.Simon Townsley ( Panos Pictures/CONTACTO)

Mi tía abuela no nació muda, pero al comienzo de la segunda ocupación soviética de Estonia la sacaron de su casa y la sometieron a un interrogatorio que duró toda la noche; después de eso, dejó de hablar. Cuando volvió a casa por la mañana parecía estar bien, pero nunca volvió a decir nada más que: “Jah, ära”. (”Sí, déjame”). La respuesta a cualquier cosa que le preguntaran siempre era ésa: “Jah, ära”. Jamás se casó ni tuvo hijos, nunca tuvo una relación amorosa. Vivió con su madre hasta el final de sus días.

Escuché esa historia de niña, y aunque los adultos no entraron en detalles sobre lo que había sucedido durante los interrogatorios, todos lo adivinábamos, incluso yo.…  Seguir leyendo »

Children look at burnt out trucks that were destroyed during the war on Feb. 18 in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Ed Ram/Getty Images

Ethiopia is putting the finishing touches on a much-trumpeted initiative for transitional justice in the wake of a devastating civil war in the northern Tigray region.

There is much popular demand for such an initiative. Ethiopians of all stripes now say they want accountability: In late December, a Justice Ministry body tasked with developing the policy in accordance with the November 2022 peace agreement, signed in South Africa between the government and the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), revealed a consensus on the need for prosecution of those responsible for the most heinous war crimes. It came hot on the heels of the state-affiliated Ethiopian Human Rights Commission (EHRC) releasing its own recommendations, which also listed criminal accountability among an array of transitional justice components.…  Seguir leyendo »

Bertram Schmitt, judge at the International Criminal Court, has expressed "the hope that sooner or later - sooner rather than later", the victims of Dominic Ongwen's crimes will receive their compensation, but who can find the 52 million euros awarded by the ICC? © ICC-CPI

By the time I made my way over to the courtroom entrance at 14:45 on February 28, the queue for courtroom security was longer than many of those I have stood in at Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport. It seemed to be mainly composed, however, of a university class visit and staff from the International Criminal Court (ICC), rather than NGOs and other external parties. A few members of the press made their way past to take the elevator to the media room, as we all trooped into Courtroom I. Loud and excited chatter quickly gave way to hushed silence as a security guard gave two loud claps, called for quiet, and reminded us to stand “in respect for the judges” once the curtains opened.…  Seguir leyendo »

A rebel convoy in North Darfur province, Sudan, 2009. Jérôme Tubiana

In 2009 Arbab, a tall, slim, thirty-five-year-old man, was driving a pickup truck in North Darfur province, part of a rebel convoy that had crossed into Sudan from Chad. Aside from a small circle in the windshield through which to see the road, his vehicle was covered in mud, making for a stark contrast with his perfectly clean uniform. The guerillas were trying to hide from the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF), whose fighter jets nonetheless launched optimistic volleys at their convoy.

The conflict in Darfur, a region the size of France in the west of Sudan, had begun in 2003. It pitted two rebel forces, largely drawn from local non-Arab communities, against the central government of President Omar al-Bashir.…  Seguir leyendo »

Una mujer yanomami camina con su hijo en el Estado brasileño de Roraima.Edmar Barros (AP)

El 31 de marzo, el golpe militar que llevó a Brasil a una dictadura de 21 años (1964-1985), transformó la destrucción de la Amazonia en política de Estado, asesinó a más de 8.000 indígenas y cientos de no indígenas, convirtió comisarías en centros de tortura de opositores y secuestró a niños y adultos, cumple 60 años. Desde la redemocratización, con la primera elección presidencial en 1989, Brasil vive hoy su momento más delicado en la relación con las Fuerzas Armadas. Las evidencias son múltiples. Pero ninguna consecuencia salta tan a la vista como la omisión de los militares ante el genocidio del pueblo indígena yanomami en la frontera de Brasil con Venezuela.…  Seguir leyendo »

Tema

La Corte Internacional de Justicia ha emitido una Orden sobre medidas provisionales solicitadas por Sudáfrica contra Israel por su posible violación de sus obligaciones conforme a la Convención para la Prevención y la Sanción del Delito de Genocidio.

Resumen

La Corte Internacional de Justicia ha constatado, por una muy amplia mayoría de sus jueces, que es plausible que Israel esté violando en Gaza sus obligaciones conforme a la Convención sobre el Genocidio. La Orden sobre medidas provisionales que la Corte emitió el 26 de enero exige a Israel que tome todas las medidas a su alcance para prevenir la comisión de actos susceptibles de incurrir en los tipos criminales registrados por la Convención sobre el Genocidio, velando con efecto inmediato para que su ejército no cometa tales actos.…  Seguir leyendo »

Genocidio: un crimen tan difícil de probar como de cometer

En 1948 se aprueba la Convención para la prevención y sanción del crimen de genocidio. En ella se define este crimen como el intento de destruir, total o parcialmente, un grupo nacional, étnico, racial o religioso mediante la actuación sobre sus miembros, ya sea matándolos, impidiendo los nacimientos o colocando al grupo en condiciones de existencia dirigidas a provocar su exterminio. Se protege la propia existencia de determinados grupos humanos; los individuos son elegidos por formar parte del grupo y atacados con la intención de aniquilar al grupo en sí.

En la actualidad, el genocidio es una de las cuatro categorías de crímenes sobre las que tiene competencia la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI).…  Seguir leyendo »